President Dwight D. Eisenhower

By: Chad Houchin

The Election of Eisenhower

  • Eisenhower was a the Republican nominee in the elections of 1952 and 1956
  • The elections were both landslide victories for Eisenhower
  • For both elections Eisenhower ran against Adlai E. Stevenson the democratic nominee
  • In the Election of 1952 Richard Nixon was chosen for Vice-President to satisfy the anticommunist wing of the Republican Party
  • Nixon ran again with Eisenhower in 1956

The Cold War

  • The Cold War was a 40 year standoff between the US and USSR which consisted of an arms race as well as nuclear weapons race
  • Also a political battle over the ideals of communism and democracy
  • After Eisenhower gained control of the oval office he worked to end the Korean War
  • After he threatened to use nuclear weapons an armistice was signed in July of 1953
  • Eisenhower's leadership, sincerity, fairness and optimism helped to comfort the nation after the war
  • In 1958 Lebanon called upon the Eisenhower to uphold his promise to defend countries under attack by communism
  • In 1960 an American spy plane was shot down in Russia which caused tension
  • The Latin American countries began to despise American intervention
  • Because of this in 1959 Fidel Castro overthrew the American supported Cuban government

Joseph McCarthy

  • Made a speech condemning Secretary of State Acheson for employing 205 communist members
  • Although was untrue, he was believed by the public and gained a lot of support
  • Joseph McCarthy was one of the most ruthless "red hunters" of the day
  • Was eventually condemned for "conduct unbecoming a member."

Eisenhower and Desegregation of the South

  • In the 1954 court case Brown v. Board of Education the Supreme Court ruled that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional
  • In 1955 Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white man in Birmingham, Alabama which set off a chain causing the Black Civil RIghts movements of the late 50's and 60'
  • In 1957 Eisenhower scrambled troops to escort 9 black children to school in Central High School in Arkansas because of their original denial by the governor.
  • Also in 1957 Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1957, the first since reconstruction Civil Rights Commission to investigate violations of civil rights.

Eisenhower's Republicanism Policies

  • Eisenhower was personally a liberal but had conservative economic policies
  • Supported the transfer of offshore drilling wells from the federal government to the states
  • In 1954 he sent back 1 million illegal immigrants to their home countries as a part of Operation Wetback
  • Attempted to balance the federal budget to keep the US from socialism

Vietnam War

  • In 1954 a French garrison was trapped and Eisenhower decided not to intervene
  • The Geneva conference decided Vietnam at the 17th parallel
  • Eisenhower promised aid to the pro-western South Vietnam government
  • The pro-western Southern Vietnamese government was located in Saigon, led by Ngo Dinh Diem and supported both economically and politically by Eisenhower

Space Race with the Soviets

  • On October 4, 1957, the Soviets launched the Sputnik I satellite into space and Sputnik II in November carrying a dog
  • Soviets tried to prove that communism was superior industrially to capitalism
  • In response Eisenhower created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) which kicked off the space race which bled into the 1960's
  • Because of the new technological advances in the Soviet Union people thought the US education system was falling behind
  • In response to this Eisenhower also created the National Defense and Education Act (NDEA) to provide funding to needy college students