Vertebrates have a back bone!

Their are hive groups of vertebrates.

By: Sara smith

Enjoy reading!


They use gills to breathe. There are many different types of fish. They live in salt and or fresh water

Bony fish

Bony fish have jaws,gills,scales,And fins. also they have a skeleton made of hard bones Make up 95% of all fish species.
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Jawless fish

They have no scales and no jaw. There mouths contain structure for grabbing,scrapping,and sucking their food. There skeleton is made up of cartilage.
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Cartilaginous fish

It has a jaw,scales and a skeleton made of cartilage. They are normally carnivores (eat meat).

FUN FACT: sharks have to relay on swimming or the oceans currents to get air into their lungs,because of this they sleep in ocean currents. They also have live births.

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Amphibians begin their lives in the water, most spend their adult lives on land return to water to reproduce.
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Amphibians skin.

Amphibians have smooth slimy skin. They DO NOT have scales.

Some amphibians can breathe through their skin!

Their skin is permeable (which allows oxygen in and out of the animal), but it must be moist! This is why many amphibians live near water.

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Amphibians adaptations.

The webbed feet of the frog help it swim through the water.

Sticky pads on the toes of the tree frogs give it secure foot holds to climb.


Reptiles are adapted for life on land. Their skin,kidney, and legs have adapted to conserve water.
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Reptiles lizards

Lizards skin is covered with overlapping scales,as they grow they shed their skin. They also have external ears. Characteristics: moveable eyelids, carnivores and herbivores, long tail, four legs, claws.
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Reptiles snakes

Skin covered with overlapping scales,as they grow they shed their skin.
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Reptiles snakes

Characteristics: no legs, internal ear, no eyelids, carnivores, jaw bones can spread apart, some have long teeth, some have venom.

Reptiles alligators & crocodile

Large, carnivores reptiles that care for their young!
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Reptiles alligators

Broad rounded snout, few teeth visible when mouth closes, don't usually attack humans.

Reptiles crocodiles

Pointed snouts, most teeth visible when mouth closed.

Reptiles turtles

Turtles can live in the ocean, fresh water, and on land! The turtles that live on land are called" turoises".
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Reptiles turtles

There body is covered by a shell .

A shell has ribs and a back bone.

Most can draw there head,legs, and tails inside the shell.

They have a sharp edged beak for tearing food.

Carnivores or herbivores.

Shells can be hard of soft.

Shell is covered with scales.


Do you think all bird can fly? Well read and find out!
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Bird characteristics

Warm blooded, builds nests, has feathers, has a four chambered heart,lays eggs.

Birds how they eat.

Have you ever seen a bird on the side of the road pecking at the gravel?

Birds swallow small stones that go to the birds gizzard to help grind their food since they don't have teeth to chew.

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Adaptions for flight.

*Bones are nearly hollow making the bird light weight.

*contour feathers is a large feather that gives shape to the birds body.

*flight feathers contour feathers on the wings and tail that help balance and steer.

*down feathers short and fluffy, trap heat.

Can all birds fly?

No, not all birds can fly.

There are about 60 living species of birds that can not fly!

EXAMPLE: the penguins wings have evolved into flippers adapted to swimming instead of flying.

Caring for their young.

Birds use internal fertilization and lay eggs..

Birds eggs only develop at a temperature close to the temperature of the parent bird, so they sit on them to keep them warm.

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A woodpeckers bills can chip into the wood of the tree.


Young mammals are fed milk produced from their mother.
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Characteristics of mammals

* All mammals are warm blooded.

* All mammals have a four chambered heart.

* Covered with fur or hair.

* Young mammals are fed milk produced from their mother.

Mammal examples.

* Kangaroos

* Mice

* Dolphins

* Lions

* Rabbits

* Fox

* Bats

* Moles

* Humans

And many many more.

Did you know?

Most people think that giving birth to live young is a trait of mammals. While most mammals do give birth to live young not all do. So that would mean that live birth is not a mammals trait.
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Did you know?

There are three classes of mammals monotremes are mammals that they eggs. Only spiny anteaters and duck- billed platypus fall into the category.


Marsupials are another group of mammals. This group contains: koalas,kangaroos,and opossums.

Marsupials have young that are born very early in development. The young mammal continues to develop inside a pouch on their mothers body.

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Placental mammals

Placental mammals are the last group of mammals. This group contains: humans, Dolphins,zebras,and many more.

Placental mammals

Placental mammals have young that develop inside their mothers body until it's body system can function independently. Placental mammals are very diverse group of mammals: they range from armadillos to elephants.
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Caring for their young.

Young mammals are usually born very helpless. Due to this fact young mammals stay in the care of their mother (or both parents) for an extended a mount of time. This varies from months to years.