(long form) Republic of Uzbekistan.
Ethnicity: Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Kara kalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%.
Climate: The climate of Uzbekistan ranges from 20 degrees to 30 degrees.
Uzbekistan in central Asia features some of the world’s largest landforms. While a major portion of the country is a desert landscape, there are also mountainous and lowland river valleys located within its borders. One of its more prominent features, the Aral Sea, is only a ghost of its former self.
Much of Uzbekistan is desert land. The largest of these deserts is the Kyzyl Kum (alternatively Kyzylkum), which is the 11th largest desert in the world. Kyzyl Kum translates to “Red Sand” in Uzbek. The desert covers an area of approximately 115,000 square miles, and a majority of the landscape is a plain that slopes toward the northeast and is dotted with bare mountains. The tallest mountain reaches 3,025 feet. Desert plants grow in sand ridges and serve as a pasture for Karakul sheep, camels and horses. Gazli, in the southeast portion of the desert, has a rich natural gas deposit.
Mountainous regions are in the northeast and southeast of Uzbekistan. The Chatkal Mountain range is part of the Western Tian Shan range that extends from the Himalayas. The Greater Chimgan Mountain, situated in the Ugam-Chatkal National Park, reaches 10,856 feet. Mountaineers have been climbing that peak since the early 20th century. The mountain has climbing routes suitable for both beginners and more experienced climbers.
The western edge of Uzbekistan consists of lowland areas, such as the Ustyurt Plateau and the Amu Darya River Valley. The plateau covers an area just over 77,220 square miles and is shared by both Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. Sections of this lowland plateau are protected in an attempt to save the endangered regional species and preserve its ecological importance. The Amu Darya River is the largest in Central Asia. Some 8.5 percent of the Amu Darya’s flow originates in Uzbekistan. The country primarily uses the water from this river for agricultural purposes.
The Aral Sea, shared by both Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, has shrunk considerably since the 1960s. At one point, the Aral Sea was the fourth largest lake in the world, but as a result of over-irrigation, the lake has all but disappeared. The smaller North Aral Sea has remained mostly intact, though it has separated from the larger South Aral Sea. Most of the devastation is found in the southern region of the lake, which has separated into an eastern and western lobe since the 1960s. A dam built between the northern and southern sections of the Sea in 2005 has all but destroyed the South Aral Sea.
The most valuable wood species - Zerafshani archa grows in lower mountains. Deciduous species such as maple, hawthorn, various sorts of wild apple-trees, pistachio-tree, walnut-tree, birch, willow, poplar, cherry-tree are also widespread. Lower mountains are rich in bushes: honeysuckle, barberry, dog-rose, meadow-sweet, bushes of wild grape. Grasses are also very diverse: muscat sage, rhubarb, tulip, Pskem onion (precious herb). Middle mountains feature dog-rose and other bushes. Only 30% of high mountains are covered with plants. Mostly tipchak grows here.
One can find many representatives of Asian fauna. Among them are: mammals (wolf, big-eared hedgehog, vixen, hare - toloy, tortoise, djeyran, saygak, wild boar, spiral horny billy-goat, mountain sheep, badger, stone marten, bear, snow leopard, ermine, Siberian mountain billy-goat, lamellitoothed rat, jacal, Bukharan deer, Bukharan, sharp-eared night gopher, jerboa), reptiles (heccons, agama, sand boa, arrow-snake, Central Asian cobra, quadristripe sledge runner, Alay , birds (pretty bustard, dun goatsucker, jay, shrike, mountain finch, bunting, lentil, grand turtle-dove, black griffon, lammergeyer, bearded vulture, jackdow, pheasant, cuckoo, yellow wagtail, magpie, black crow, southern nightingale, whiskered tomtit, cane bunting,), insects
The Constitution provides for freedom of religion and for the principle of separation of church and state. However, the Government continued to restrict these rights in practice. The Government permits the operation of what it considers mainstream religious groups, including approved Muslim groups, jewish groups, the , and various other Christian denominations, such as Roman Catholics, Lutherans, and Baptists. Uzbek society generally tolerates Christian churches as long as they do not attempt to win converts among ethnic Uzbeks; the law prohibits or severely restricts activities such as proselytizing, importing and disseminating religious literature, and offering private religious
Uzbek national clothes are very bright, beautiful and cozy. Uzbek clothes are a part of rich cultural traditions and life style of Uzbek people. In urban places it is uncommon to meet people in traditional Uzbek clothes, now it is mostly worn on traditional festivities and holidays. In rural places it is a part of everyday and holiday garments.
Education Written by D. Yuldashev Minister of Public Education of Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan is the state of youth. Children, teenagers and young people under the age of 25 comprise approximately 60% of the total population. Inherent in Uzbekistan's ancient heritage is love of children and care for their health, well being and education. As early as in the 7th century the Chinese scientists and explorer, Suan Tsan, wrote that he saw 5-year old boys in Samarkand being thought how to read, write and count. Later, these children were sent out with caravans to learn business and trade.
Nowadays in our country every third child studies at the secondary school or gets trade experience at the high and secondary special schools and trade institutions. Five million children study at school, and more than a million are preparing to be school children at kindergarten level. The education of children and youth is one of the main priorities of the countries government policy. That is why the LAW of Education was adapted in June of l992, which became one of the first laws in our young sovereign state.
History of Uzbek music Since ancient times, on the territory of Uzbekistan various civilizations have developed, blossomed and fallen into decay, and left a deep mark on the history of world culture.
Concerning musical and theatrical art, which also has deep roots in past centuries, it was born in the midst of the multinational peoples of Central Asia. During the era of the Samanids (9th-10th cc.), rropewalkers and stilt walkers and performances of national comedians were developing. They slightly remind one of modern popular circus performances. Most vividly, these tendencies were shown in the creativity of the actors of the "Maskharaboz" theatre.
Uzbekistan Culture: Ancient Heritage
Uzbekistan culture is very colorful and distinctive. It has been formed over millenniums and has taken in traditions and customs of various nations settled on the territory of today Uzbekistan.
The main contribution to the development was made by ancient Iranians, nomad Turkic tribes, Arabs, Chinese, Russians. Traditions of multinational Uzbekistan reflected in the music, dances, fine art, applied arts, language, cuisine and clothing. Population of the republic, especially rural population revere traditions deeply rooted in the history of the country.
The Great Silk Road played a great role in the development of Uzbekistan culture. Being the trade route, it ran from China to two destinations: first one was to Ferghana Valley and Kazakh steppes and second route led to Bactria, and then to Parthia, India and Middle East up to Mediterranean Sea. The Silk Road favored to exchange not only goods, but also technologies, languages, ideas, religions. Thereby the Great Silk Road led to the spread of Buddhism on the territory of Central Asia, where you still may find traces of Buddhist culture: Adjina-tepe in Tadjikistan, Buddhist temple in Kuva, Ferghana valley, Fayaz-Tepa near Termez in Uzbekistan
Not for nothing people from all over the world like and honor the Uzbek cuisine. It is one of the most savoury and various in tastes cuisine in Central Asia. Only names of appetizing Uzbek food make one’s mouth water. Plov, manti, shurpa, shashlik, lagman, samsa have such wonderful smell that one can’t resist the temptation to taste all these dishes piping hot.
Many Uzbek recipes have centuries-old history, and the process of preparing food is accompanied with various rituals, which have reached our days. All specific peculiarities of Uzbek food have been forming for centuries.
National Uzbek food is the separate layer of culture of Uzbek people. Unlike their nomadic neighbors, Uzbek people always were a settled nation, which cultivated agriculture and cattle-raising. At their fertile valleys Uzbek people raised vegetables, fruits and cereals; they bred cattle, which were the source of meat, the abundance of which can be seen in most dishes. Undoubtedly, Uzbek food imbibed some culinary traditions of Turkic, Kazakh, Uigur, Tajik, Tatar, Mongolian and other neighboring nations, settled on the territory of Central Asia
Uzbek people usually have big families consisting of few generations. In such families respect towards elderly people is a tradition. Certain line of conduct is observed in the relations between men and women. Thus salutation by shaking hands is permissible only between men. While shaking hands, as a rule, it is advisable to show interest in each other's health and personal progress. It is customary to greet women with light bow placing right hand over the heart.
The politics of Uzbekistan take place in a framework of a Presidential republic, whereby the politics of Uzbekistan is both head of state and head of government . Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament , the Legislative chamber and senate. Positions in Uzbekistan's government are largely dependent on clan membership and politics, rather than on party membership