Egyptians

How they used Astronomy

Using the stars

Alignment to the cardinal points of the compass was most likely accomplished by astronomical observation. Because stars appear to move in Egypt from east to west, true north could have been established by dividing the angle of a rising and setting star by two. Or the sun could have been used to establish true north though measuring the length of a shadow of a vertical at various times of the day. Neither method can be proved, but both could have been performed given Egyptian knowledge of astronomy.
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Calender

The ancient Egyptians also had a working knowledge of astronomy. This allowed them to construct the Great Pyramid of Giza so that it points to the celestial north pole with only a small margin of error. This knowledge helped them develop two lasting contributions to the modern world: the 24-hour day and the 365-day calendar. The Egyptians divided night and day into twelve hours each based on their observation of certain constellations. This division was adjusted to account for the longer days in the summer and the shorter days in the winter. The calendar we use today was also established by the ancient Egyptians. The beginning of their calendar was based on the rising of the brightest star in the sky.
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The Great Pyramid of Giza

The ancient Egyptians also had a working knowledge of astronomy. This allowed them to construct the Great Pyramid of Giza so that it points to the celestial north pole with only a small margin of error. This knowledge helped them develop two lasting contributions to the modern world: the 24-hour day and the 365-day calendar.
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sources

Peter Hodges, How the Pyramids Were Built, edited by Julian Keable (Longmead, U.K.: Element Books, 1989).

Mark Lehner, The Complete Pyramids (New York: Thames & Hudson, 1997).

J. P. Lepre, The Egyptian Pyramids: A Comprehensive, Illustrated Reference (Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland, 1990).

Peter Tompkins, Secrets of the Great Pyramid (New York: Harper & Row, 1971).

"Technology and Engineering: Building the Pyramids." World Eras. Ed. Edward I. Bleiberg. Vol. 5: Ancient Egypt, 2615 - 332 B.C.E. Detroit: Gale, 2002. 283-285. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 4 Sept. 2015.

"Ancient Egyptian Contributions to Science." Gale Student Resources in Context. Detroit: Gale, 2011. Student Resources in Context. Web. 9 Sept. 2015

"Egyptian Astronomy, Astrology, and Calendrical Reckoning." Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Vol. 15. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008. 706-727. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 9 Sept. 2015