A theory coined by Douglas McGregor
Management vs Employment Perspective
Manager: Theory X managers must rely heavily on the threat of punishment to gain compliance of employees. When practiced, this theory can lead to mistrust, highly restrictive supervision and a punitive atmosphere.
Employee: According to this theory, employees will show little ambition without an enticing incentive program and will avoid responsibility when they can.
What does Theory X mean?
-Type X individuals are considered to be inherently lazy and not fond of their jobs.
-As an outcome, an authoritarian management style is required to ensure that individuals fulfill their objectives.
-Workers managed this way need to be closely supervised under comprehensive systems of control.
-A hierarchical structure is needed with narrow span of control at each and every level.-This assumes that employees are naturally unmotivated and dislike working, and this encourages an authoritarian style of management.
-According to this view, management must actively intervene to get things done.
Little delegation of authority and control remains firmly centralized.
Why is Theory X good?
-The work will get done faster due to the managers micro-managing the workers and keeping them on task.
-Work will be done like clockwork with little room for error, because of the time and quality limits being placed on the worker.
-This managerial style is more effective when used to motivate a workforce that is not inherently motivated to perform
Why is Theory X bad?
-There is often a higher rate of poor job satisfaction, because the manager does not trust the employee to do the appropriate work on his or her own.
-This theory requires that the employees are robotic in performing their duties, they need input in order to produce output.
-The employees are more likely to avoid work or become more distracted once the manager is out of sight.
-One major flaw of this management style is that it limits employee potential and discourages out of the box thinking.
Real Life Example
A Theory X type manager would be more inclined to use tangible rewards as incentives. They assume their authority is resented and adopt regulations that are designed to enforce compliance