Boreal Forests (Taiga)

Located in the Northernmost part of the Northern Hemisphere

Description of Biome

- Boreal Forests are cold and snowy for most of the year.

- Coniferous or boreal forests occur in cold northern regions characterized by long cold winters and short summers. Although there is a lot of precipitation, most of it falls as snow.

Abiotic Factors

The Taiga is coldest in January and December, when temperatures range from about -20 to -24 degrees Celsius. Temperatures rise in February, and the hottest the Taiga gets is about 15 degrees Celsius in mid July. After July, temperatures drop gradually until January. The highest amount of precipitation annually the Taiga gets is around 75 mm (3 inches) in August. The lowest is about 15 mm (0.6 in ) in December. Most precipitation in the Taiga biome is in the form of snow.

Biotic Factors

- Coniferous trees, such as spruce, pine, hemlock, and fir are common.

- American Black Bear, Bull Caribou, Moose, Bald Eagle, Bobcat, Canadian Lynx, Gray Wolf, Grizzly Bear, Long-Eared Owl, Red Fox, River Otter, Snowshoe Rabbit, and Wolverine are some animals that inhabit that taiga.


-The Ermine's brown summer coat changes to white to help it camouflage itself during the winter.

- Many trees are evergreen so that they can photosynthesize right away when temperatures rise.

Importance of Biome

- In some areas, boreal forest has been extensively converted to other land uses by clear cutting, which destroys the habitat of many animals living in the Taiga.

- Climate change caused by humans can cause the permafrost to melt.

- The taiga has been severely damaged by air pollution.

- The Taiga can help to contribute to cool climate change.


-Food Chain

- Primary Producer: Coniferous Trees

- Primary Consumer: Moose

- Secondary Consumer: Wolverine

- Tertiary Consumer: Arctic Fox

Taiga Biome


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