Decolonization

Created by: Addie, Carlyn, Grit, & Hayden

Independence in India

Hindu and Muslims were killed in a peaceful protest. Ghandi became India's most important voice, gaining popular support against British colonial rule demonstrated by refusal to assist the colonial government as well as massive boycotts of imperial goods. Ghandi's nonviolent teachings and his success became enormously influential to people like MLK Jr. At the same time, there was increased violence between Hindus and Muslims. Racial members of each group found it hard to tolerate each other. In the late 1920's, Ghandi became to call for Indian unity above religious considerations. instead, the Muslim League actively pushed for the creation of a Muslim state known as Pakistan.

Independence Won: Nations Two

After WWII, BR gave independence to India. Hindus and Muslims started violent conflict. Ghandi wanted to unite Hindus and Muslims while Muhammad Ali Jinnah wanted to separate into a Hindu India and Muslim Pakistan in the north. Britain thought the separation would save lives and in 1947, they split the Indian subcontinent into India, Pakistan, and East Pakistan (Bangladesh). Millions of people were forced to move due to religious violence. Ghandi himself was killed by a Hindu. Religion continues to motivate India and Pakistan into conflict.

Africa

After WWII and Indian independence, thousands of Africans fought for independence. In 1910, the Union of South Africa was highly racially segregated. In 1912, educated South Africans created the African National Congress to oppose colonialism and segregation. Egypt won independence in 1922, and in 1950, Gamal Nasser established its republic and fought to create others. South of the Sahara, colonies lost their resources and there were very few educated Africans to build a working society. People didn't like each other due to different ethnicities and culture. Decolonization and nation building occurred from war and negotiations. The African Union est. 2001, ensured new democratic governments would not be overthrown. Africa is still rich in natural resources, meaning its economy will be fine.

Rwanda: Ethnic Genocide

Two ethnic groups in Rwanda, the Hutus and the Tutsi, fought each other due to opposing views, resulting in the death of millions.

Developments in South Africa: The Rise and Fall of Apartheid

In Africa, the Dutch Boers and British colonists were given authority. They created racial segregation (Apartheid). Blacks were banned from working and given less rights. They were also forced into the worse parts of the country. Nelson Mandela became the leader of the African National Congress. He wanted to end Apartheid peacefully. That changed after the killing of innocents. He was arrested by colonial authority, but upon release, he was elected president of South Africa in 1994 after decades of black and international pressure.

The Middle East

After WWI, the League of Nations split control of the Middle East, controlling trade and politics. France received Syria and Lebanon while Britain received Palestine, Jordan, and Iraq.

Israel: Balfour Declares a Mess

Palestine is a Muslim state. After WWI, the Balfour Declaration of 1917 made by the League of Nations gave Jews Palestinian land to live in. However, it was messy because Palestinians did not want to give up land.

The Jewish Wait for a State Ends in 1948

The UN created two Palestines, one for Jews and one for Muslims. The prime minister of Israel announced the creation of the Jewish homeland, which made the Muslims mad. 6 countries attacked Israel, but Israel managed to win. The Israelis and Palestinians continue to fight over territory. The Israelis were forced to leave.

The Iranian Revolution: The Shah Gets Shooed

Iran gains a new leader that begins to bring western reforms to the country. Islamic fundamentalists are outraged, sparking the Iranian Revolution and creating a government based on Shia Muslim law. Iraq invades soon after over border disputes with backing from the US, an 8 year struggle. Since the fall of the religious leader, Iran has become conflicted between traditional Muslim views and pro-Western minorities.

Oil: Enormous Amounts of Goo

After the Industrial Revolution, the Middle East realized that their countries had tons of oil that could be used as fuel. Multinational corporations then rushed to obtain drilling rights. This world interest in these countries that contained some two-thirds of the world's oil sometimes led to war. Oil exporting countries then united to form OPEC, or the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. In order to gain more money, the cut the supply of oil, which caused the price and demand for it to increase in 1970.