Types of Mining and Fracking

By Aidan Seidman and Ryan Spivak

Types of Mining

There are 2 types of mining-

-Surface Mining

-Sub- Surface Mining

Surface Mining is more common; 85% of earth's minerals and fossil fuels come from surface mining

-Done by stripping land of any vegetation, soil, and bedrock to reach the ore below

-Types include open-pit mining, strip mining, and mountain top removal

Sub-Surface Mining involves digging tunnels and pits underground to reach buried ore.

-Many different techniques have been developed to use on different types of rock

-Types include shrinkage stop mining, retreat mining, and room and pillar mining

Mining Techniques

Strip Mining- the removal of soil and rock above a deposit of ore

-Used for the extraction of deposits of coal, phosphates, and similar minerals

-Land impact- Once the deposits are depleted, the landscape becomes unsuitable for any use; makes it unusable

Retreat Mining- involves excavating a room or chamber and putting up pillars to give the room support.

-As the mineral is excavated, the supports are taken out until the mine collapses on itself

Land Impact- No significant impact on the land, but can be very dangerous for the miners

Pictures of Different Mining Technuiqes


-Fracking is the process of drilling down in the earth and shooting high pressure chemicals at rock to release natural gas.

-Can be dangerous because it can cause sinkholes to form

-Contaminates Ground Water

-Lots of Pollution