Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) are both conditions that affects a person ability to stay focus on things such as School work, Social interactions and everyday activities like brushing your teeth or getting dressed. In Canada there are almost 2 million people who have ADHD.

History on ADD

ADD is the old term for this condition, it is out of date now this disorder is now known as ADHD. ADD was used up till 1987, than another name for this condition was added and they modified the name by adding hyperactive to the name (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). When Scientist increase their knowledge they update a book called Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders which was publish by The American Psychiatric Associations. Research in 1970s and 1980s began to show there are different types of attention deficit. Doctors began to see that the different types are all part of the same major condition. After discovering this The American Psychatric Association changed the name from ADD ( Attention Deficit Disorder) to ADHD .


ADHD and ADD both refer to the same same condition. The biggest difference is that people with ADHD are hyperactive, they have trouble sitting still and are overly active. Teachers may quickly notice rambunctious behavior, and suspect that there might be attention issues involved. There are 3 different types of ADHD:

  • Predominantly inattentive presentation. This referrers to a person that shows enough symptoms of inattention, but Doesn't meet the full criteria for hyperactivity and impassivity. They also Tend to be sluggish and slow to respond and process information, they may be easily distracted and appear forgetful or careless.
  • Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive presentation: Occurs when a person has enough symptoms of hyperactivity and impassivity but not enough for inattention.
  • Combined presentation: This type is when a person meets the criteria of both inattention and hyperactivity and impassivity.


some symptoms of ADHD/ADD are less noticeable than others, for example Inattentive is harder to diagnose than Hyperactivity. 30% of patients who have ADHD symptoms, as they grow older may be less serve while some patients will show the same amount of severity. The symptoms for the 3 types of ADHD are different.

Inattention symptoms of ADHD include:

  • Not paying attention to details
  • Making careless mistakes
  • Failing to pay attention and keep on task
  • Not listening
  • Being unable to follow or understand instructions
  • Avoiding tasks that involve effort
  • Being distracted or forgetful
  • Losing things that are needed to complete tasks

Hyperactivity -impulsive symptoms of ADHD includes
  • Fidgeting
  • Squirming
  • Getting up often when seated
  • Running or Climbing at inappropriate times
  • Having trouble playing quietly
  • Talking excessively or out of turn
  • Interrupting
Combined presentation shows both Hyperactive and inattention symptoms


Treatment for ADHD includes medications and various types of psychotherapy, education and training or a combination of both treatment. Medications alone will not really address the core issues a child or adult with ADHD has. While they are taking medication it is strongly recommended to go to psychotherapy to do exercises with the brain. Less than 1 in 3 children with ADHD receive both medication treatment and behavioral therapy. The age that is preferred to start treatment is age 6 and older. Only half of preschoolers (4-5 years of age) with ADHD received behavioral therapy.


There are different types of psychotherapy are used for ADHD. Behavioral Therapy is the most common psychotherapy to treat ADHD. Behavioral Therapy aims to help a patient to change his or her behavior. It might involve exercise such as help organizing task or completing schoolwork or working through emotionally difficult events. Behavioral therapy teaches a child how to monitor/control his or her own behavior. Thearpist may teach children social skills, such as how to wait their turn, share toys ask for help or respond to teasing.


ADHD treatment has typically focused on medications in the past. The medication most commonly prescribed is stimulants. The most popular stimulant medications used for ADHD is Ratlin (methylphenidate) or Adderall ( an amphetamine) are commonly prescribed to patients. These medication activate the brain circuits that support attention and focused behavior therefore reducing hyperactivity and improving their ability to focus, work and learn. Stimulant medications come in different forms such as a pill, capsule, liquid or skin patch. Medication must be prescribed to patients, each patient will respond differently to medications. one patients might have side effects with a certain medication while another patients will not. sometimes several different medications or dosage must be tried before finding one that works for a particular patient. all patient who are on medication must be monitored closely. Some side effects of stimulant medications are

  • Decreased in appetite
  • Sleep problems
  • personality change (appearing "flat" or emotionless)

Life with ADHD

ADHD affect all aspects of a child's life, it also impacts the parent and siblings. The effect of ADHD with children and their families changes from preschool years to primary years and adolescence, with varying aspects of this disorder being more prominent at different stages in life. Children who have ADHD can affect many aspects of an individual's life including academic difficulties, Social Skills problem and Parent-child relationship. It was preciously thought that children can outgrow ADHD but recent studies stated that 30-60% of affected children continue to show significant symptoms of the disorder into childhood. When Children with ADHD grow older the way the disorder impacts them and their families changes.

Child Hood Lifestyle

ADHD may not stand out during preschool childhood since this age group there is often children who have high levels of activity and poor concentration. It is difficult to diagnose whether the child has ADHD. when the child in in their primary school age it is more apparent that the child is having difficulties at home or with everyday task (for example: shopping or visiting other family members). 11 percent of american from 7-14 have ADHD. ADHD for young teens may realize a reduction in over activity but inattention, impulsiveness and inner restlessness remain a major difficulties Children with ADHD have very poor sleeping patterns. When the child is diagnose with ADHD the school is informed and may try to work with them in order to prevent academic failure. Children with ADHD will find it extremely hard to stay focus on their task and also may find it difficult to get along with peers. Families who have a child with ADHD may find finical struggles and may have problem getting along with their child.

Adult Life

Some patients can have better control of their disorder while they grow older but some may carry on the same symptoms as they grow older. Adults with ADHD are more likely to be dismissed from employment and have often tried numerous jobs before being able to find one which they can succeed in. they may experience more interpersonal difficulties with employers and colleagues and may have problem with being late and to accomplish expected workload. At home relationship difficulties and break-ups are more common. The risk of drug and substance abuse increase in adults who show consistent ADHD symptoms who have not been receiving medication. patients who have ADHD symptoms commonly improve as they get older, they tend to learn to adapt with the symptoms form Psychotherapy or get prescribe the right medication that works for them.