Lung Cancer

By: Jin-Ting Zhao Pd. 5/6

WHAT HAPPENS TO THE CELLS?

The cells starts growing abnormal cells uncontrollably and the cells that are created are useless and they are nonfunctional. The abnormal cells later create a tumor which stops the lung from working properly like providing oxygen for the body.

WHERE DOES LUNG CANCER GENERALLY AFFECT?

Lung Cancer generally affects the lungs, either only one of them of both of them. It stops the lungs from fully functioning. If not treated, there is a higher possibility of the tumor on the lung spreading to other parts of the body, causing the nearby organs to be affected and not function properly as well.

SYMPTOMS OF LUNG CANCER

IF LUNG CANCER SPREADS TO OTHER AREAS IT MAY CAUSE:

POSSIBLE CAUSES OF LUNG CANCER:

Risk Factors:


  • Smoking
  • Secondhand Smoking
  • Cigar Smoking
  • Expose to radon ( a radioactive gas that comes from the breakdown of uranium in the soil and rocks/;Bad air pollution
  • Arsenic in Drinking Water
  • Family History of Lung Cancer
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WHAT CAN BE DONE TO PREVENT IT?

  • Avoid the risk factors
  • Try to stay away from smokers and tobacco
  • Avoid radon
  • Avoid Cancer-Causing chemicals
  • Eat a healthy diet
  • Exercise!!!!!
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DIFFERENT TYPES OF LUNG CANCERS:

There are two types of Lung Cancer:


  1. Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC)

- 10-15% of lung cancers


- this type is the most aggressive and rapidly growing

- one risk factor is strongly related to cigarette smoking

2. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC)

- the most common lung cancer, about 85% of all cases

- has 3 main type of cells found in the tumor

* Adenocarcinomas- most common type of NSCLC (40% of most cases),

associated with smoking , a better prognosis than the other type of lung

cancers

* Squamous Cell Carcinomas- today it is 25-30% of all lung cancer cases,

occurs mostly in the central chest area in the bronchi. This type often

stays in the lungs

* Large Cell Carcinomas- AKA: Undifferentiated carcinomas, least common

type of NSCLC, 10-15% of all lung cancer cases, this type has a high

chance of spreading to the lymph nodes and distant sites

HOW LUNG CANCER IS TREATED:

FOR PEOPLE WITH NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER:

  • Surgery
  • Radiation therapy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Targeted Therapy- drugs or other substances to identify accurately and attack cancer cells
  • Immunotherapy- boosts the body's natural defenses to fight the cancer
  • Eat a better diet
  • Exercise
  • STOP smoking

FOR PEOPLE WITH SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER:

  • Surgery- only if you are in healthy condition, not a good option if the cancer has already spread
  • Chemotherapy
  • Radiation Therapy
  • STOP smoking

Cancers are very hard to cure.

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HOW THE CANCER IS DIAGNOSED

  • Imaging tests- X-ray image of the lungs may reveal abnormal findings
  • Sputum Cytology- Cough with sputum (mixture of saliva and mucus), look at it under microscope and find the presence of lung cancer cells
  • Biopsy - sample of abnormal cells removed for examination
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STATISTICS AND WHO ARE MOST LIKELY TO GET LUNG CANCER

  • The chance a man will develop lung cancer in his life time is 1 in 14 (including both smoker and non-smokers)
  • The chance a woman will develop lung cancer in her life time is 1 in 17 (including both smoker and non-smokers)
  • Smokers have a higher risk of lung cancer
  • Black men are 20% more likely to get lung cancer than white men,
  • The rate is 10% lower for black woman than in white woman
  • About 1 out of 4 cancer deaths are from lung cancer.
  • More people die of lung cancer than of colon, breast, and prostate cancers combined.
  • Older people are more likely to get lung cancer
  • About 2 out of 3 people diagnosed with lung cancer are 65 or older
  • Less than 2% are younger than 45
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