History Block II
Block 2: From the Reform to the Restored Republic
Benito Juárez and the liberals.
- With the victory of the Revolution of Ayutla, came to power a new generation of liberals who were not military.
- Liberals believed in the drastic change and suggested the creation of a new Constitution.
- Benito Juarez was one of the most important liberals, he was a Zapotec Indian born in San Pablo Guelatao, in the mountains of Oaxaca.
- Benito Juarez occupied the presidency of the Republic in 1958 and for 14 years was the main national leader.
- Benito Juarez proposals originated political and social transformations, such as the organization of presidential and gubernatorial elections, the division of powers, respect for freedom of expression, the separation of religious affairs of government decisions and the creation of educational institutions.
Aspects of culture in México.
- Mexican culture was marked by decades of civil war and foreign intervention.
- The defense of freedom and sovereignty awoke nationalist sentiments of the population, which was manifested in literature, painting and music.
- Several intellectuals concerned with studying the history and geography of México, including, Manuel Orozco y Berra, Guillermo Joaquín Garcia Icazbalceta y José María Iglesias.
- In 1854 Francisco González Bocanegra composed the Mexican National Anthem, with music by Jaime Nunó. Maybe this work was the most representative sample of nationalism of the time.
- With the restoration of the Republic, the government tried to integrate through culture and education to the Mexican population, divided by war.