Empires in Collision (1750's-1900)
Colea Ballard / March 14, 2016 / 3rd Period
Peasants with the leadership of Hong Xiuquan started a peasant rebellion, between 1850 and 1864. Starting in Nanjing, Southern China, the peasants started this rebellion because harsh treatments of peasants were common, population increased and the agricultural production wasn't able to keep up. Tax collection was getting outrageous and so was the harassment of tax payers.
China's First Opium War
China and Britain fought the first Opium War in 1838 and ended in 1842 and the second Opium War in 1856 and lasted until 1858. These two massive wars were both fought in China. Throughout the 19th century, opium imports created a massive addiction problem. These opium addicts caused a surplus in economic problems. (Opium has long been used on a small scale as a drinkable medicine, a magical cure for dysentery and even described as "fit for Buddha".)
China fought Britain over the Unequal Treaties imposed by the British. These unequal treaties took place in 1842, when the Treaty of Nanjing took place in China. The British imposed this treaty to teach China a lesson about the virtues of free trade and the "proper" way to conduct relations among countries.
China's Self Strengthening Movement
Between the 1860's and 1870's an overhauled examination system sought to reinvigorate a traditional China. While borrowing cautiously from the west, it was designed to recruit candidates for official positions during the wake of the Taiping Rebellion.
Organizations who called themselves the Society of Righteous Harmonious Fists. They started an anti-foreign movement from 1898 to 1901 in Northern China. Only because they were against the spread of Western and Japanese influences.
Son of a poor scholarly father, Commissioner Lin lived 1785-1850. He excelled academically and gained a reputation as strict and honest official. Lin had forceful opposition to Opium Trade and provoked the first Opium War. Died on the way to supress the Taiping Rebellion.
Chinese Revolution of 1911
Women of the Qing Dynasty recruited students for Anti-Qing movement. Qing dynasty response = progressive imperial edicts in 1898 known as the 100 Days of Reform. Ancient imperial order collapsed with only a modest nudge from organized revs. This ended the long Qing era in China and started the beginning of a massive struggle over the country's future.
"The Sick Man of Europe"
The phrase "Sick Man of Europe" is commonly attributed to Tsar Nicholas I of Russia, reforming to the Ottoman Empire because it was increasingly falling under the financial control of the European powers and had lost territory in a series of disastrous wars.
From 1839-1876 a series of reorganization groups took shape as the Ottoman leadership sought to provide economic, social and legal motives for a strong and newly centralized state. Long process of modernization and westernization in the Ottoman Empire, also known as Ottoman Reform Movement.
In 1865, lower level officials like military officers, writers, poets and journalists had modern western style education. Tanzimat Reforms in Ottoman Empire
Sultan Abdul Hamid II
Sultan accepted constitution and ejected parliament by Young Ottomans. Under the pressure of war with Russia he suspended the reforms and reverted to an older style of leadership rule. Renewing as a caliph and protector of the Muslims