Violence Enters Politics
The Senate sent a praetor, Claudius Glaber , against the rebel slaves with about 3000 raw recruits quickly drafted from the region. They thought they had trapped the rebels on Vesuvius, but Spartacus led his men went down the other side of the mountain using vines, they fell on the rear of the soldiers, and routed them. Spartacus defeated two forces of legionary cohorts; he wanted to lead his men across the Alps to escape from Italy, but the Gauls and Germans, led by Crixus, wanted to stay and plunder. They then separated from Spartacus.
and now in 72 BCE Spartacus has raised about 70,000 slaves, mostly from rural areas. The Senate, alarmed, has sent the two consuls each with two legions, against the rebels. The Gauls and Germans, separated from Spartacus, were defeated by Publicola, and Crixus has been killed. Spartacus defeated Lentulus, and then Publicola; to avenge Crixus, Spartacus had 300 prisoners from these battles fight in pairs to the death. we are left wondering what lies next in the trials of Spartacus, will he ever die/ or will Rome continue to lose embarrassingly to this slave? stay tuned!
The Rise of Octavian
entered Rome to claim his inheritance. Caesar's will had named him chief heir and adopted him as his son, making his name now Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus. His claim was not well received by Antony, but after many machinations on both sides they eventually reconciled, at least on the surface.
Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus formed an official three-man government, called “the second triumvirate”; in order to silence opposition and raise money, they carried out bloody proscriptions, executing significant numbers of senators and equestrians, including the great orator Cicero, against whom Antony was particularly vindictive.
Antony and Octavian, leading 19-20 legions, met the 19 legions of Brutus and Cassius at Philippi in Greece. After the victory at Philippi, Octavian returned to Rome, but Antony left on a triumphal tour through Greece and the East; he planned to organize and supply an army to invade Parthia, the military campaign Caesar was preparing before he was assassinated.
Let the Gladiatiors Begin!
Gladiatorial contests, like chariot races, were originally held in large open spaces with temporary seating; there is evidence that some munera were held in the Roman Forum, for example. As the games became more frequent and popular, there was need for a larger and more permanent structure. Although the Circus Maximus was often pressed into service because of its huge seating capacity the Romans constructed a building specifically for the fights called an amphitheater, and later the Colosseum.
In the Colosseum when the trapdoors were closed, this subterranean area must have been very dark and frightening, echoing with the roaring of caged animals and the cries of prisoners awaiting execution in the arena. The top story of the Colosseum was equipped with posts to which were attached a huge awning that would shield the spectators from the hot sun. Seating in the amphitheater was arranged by rank, with a special box for the emperor and his family and ring-side seats for senators.
Classic dramas are written in poetic meters and performed by all-male actors wearing masks, usually during various religious festivals. Since there were no female actresses, often times the Romans would fond a "pretty boy" or a boy who looked feminine to take the role. This show in particular was quite wonderful.
This drama had much emotion that the spectators could harness and absorb. the hero had betrayed his loving wife for his best friends wife. When the wife of the other man had requested the hero leave his wife, his had refused, angry, the other woman proceeded to kill her husband and come back to the hero's house with an attempt to kill his. having no other option the hero stepped in front of the other woman to shield his wife while stopping the other woman in the process. All emotions were felt during this drama! splendid job!