Language Arts 7th grade

What I learned this year! by Abigayle Credeur

Chapter 1: the sentence (subject and predicate, kinds of sentences)

The subject tells whom or what the sentence is about. The predicate of a sentence tells something about the subject. The simple subject is the main word or word group that tells whom or what the sentence is about. The simple predicate or verb is the main word or word group that tells something about the subject.


Ex. The Continental Congress approved a design for the flag. (Subject-The Continental Congress)

The Continental Congress approved a design for the flag. (predicate- approved a design for the flag.)

The Continental Congress approved a design for the flag. (simple subject- Congress)

The Continental Congress approved a design for the flag. ( simple predicate or verb- approved)


The compound subject consists of two or more subjects that are joined by a conjunction and that have the same verb. The compound verb consists of two or more verbs that are joined by a conjunction and that have the same subject.


Ex.The Stars and Stripes have a great and wonderful history. (compound subject- Stars. Ex. Betsy Ross stitched and sewed for a long time before she finished. (compound verb-stitched and sewed)


The declarative sentence makes a statement and ends with a period. An imperative sentence gives a command or makes a request. Most imperative sentance end with a period. A strong command ends with an exclamation point. A interrogative sentance shows excitment or expresses strong feelings and ends with a exclamation point. A exclamotory sentance shows excitement oe express strong feelings and ends with an exclamition point .

chapter 2: parts of speech overview (noun, pronoun, adjective)

A noun is a word or word group that is used to name a person, a place, a thing, or an idea. A pronoun is a word that is used in place of one or more nouns or pronouns. An adjective is word that is used to modify a noun or pronouns.

Ex. Amanda and I are going to the smelly bowling alley tonight. (noun- Amanda and bowling alley)

Amanda and I are going to the smelly bowling alley tonight. (pronoun- I)

Amanda and i are going to the smelly bowling alley tonight. (adjective- smelly)

Chapter 3: parts of speech overview (verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, interjection)

A verb is a word that expresses action or state of being. An action verb is a verb that expresses either physical or mental activity.


Ex. I ran out of the room. ( verb/action verb-ran)


A linking verb is a verb that expresses a sate of being. A linking verb connects or links the subject to a word or word group that identifies or describes the subject. A helping verb helps the main verb express action or state of being.


Ex. There was water on the track this morning. (linking verb- was)

I was running on that track when i tripped and broke my leg. (helping verb- was)


A transitive verb is a verb that expresses an action directed toward a person, place, thing, or an idea. A intransitive verb expresses action without the action passing to a receiver, or object.


Ex. I am going run on the track today. (intransitive)

I am going run on the track. (transitive)


An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, and adjective, or another adverb. A preposition is a word that shows the relationship of a noun or a pronoun to another word.


Ex.I walked quietly along the fence to the track. (quietly- adverb)

I walked quietly along the fence to the track. (to- preposition)


A conjunction is a word that joins words or word groups. Coordinating conjunctions join word or word groups that are used in the same way. Correlative conjunctions are pair of conjunctions that joins words or word groups that are used in the same way. An Interjection a word that expresses emotion.


Ex. Karile and Cassie are going running today. (conjunction/coordinating conjunction-and)

Ex. Either Karlie or Cassie will run the mile today.(correlative conjunction- (either....or)

Ex. Wow, Cassie can run fast. (interjection-wow)

Chapter 4: Compliments (Direct and indirect objects, Subject Complements)

A complement is a word or word group that completes the meaning of a verb. A direct object is a noun, pronoun, or word group that receives an action of the verb. An indirect object is a noun, pronoun,or word group that sometimes appears in sentences containing direct objects.


Ex. Did Samantha hit a ball to third base? (direct object- ball)

Did Samantha hit a ball to third base? (indirect object- third base)


A subject complement is a word or word group in the predicate that identifies or describes the subject. A predicate nominative a word or word group in the predicate that identifies the subject. A predicate adjective is an adjective that describes the subject.


Ex. Callie has been first base since she was six years old. (Predicate nominative- Since she was six years old identifies how long she played first base)

Callie got all those batters out fearless and courageous. (Predicate adjective- fearless and courageous)

Chapter 5: the phrase (prepositional and verb phrases)

A phrase is a group of related words that are used as a single part of speech and does not contain both a verb and its subject. A prepositional phrase includes a preposition, the object of the preposition, and any other modifiers. An adjective phrase modifies a noun or pronoun. An adverb phrase modifies a verb, an adjective, or adverb.


Ex. My mom is coming pick you up between games. (prepositional phrase- Between games)

The field with the bright lights is open. (adj phrase- with the bright lights modifies- field and answers which one?)

Katie is always ready for a game. (Adv phrase- for a game- modifies- the adj ready and answers How?


A Participle is a verb form that can be used as an adjective. Present participle ends in -ing. Past Participle usually ends in -d or -ed. Some past participles are found irregularly. A Participle phrase consists of a participle togeather with its modifiers and complements. The entire phrase is used as an adjective.


Ex. The fans are cheering very loud. (present participle- Cheering)

The fans cheered when Callie scored a goal. (past participle- Cheered)

When we got home Katie was reading a book by the window. (participle phrase- Reading a book by the window)


An Infinitive is a verb form that can be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb. Most infinitives strat with to. An Infinitive phrase consists of an infinitive togeather with its monifiers and complements. The entire phrase may be used as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.


Ex. Karlie tried to win the game. (infinitive- to win)

Karlie tried to win the game. (infinitive phrase- to win the game)

Chapter 6: The Clause (Independent and Subordinate Clauses)

A clause is a word group that contains a verb and its subject and that is used as a sentence or as part of a sentence. An independent (or main) clause expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a sentence. A subordinate (or dependent) clause does not express a complete thought and can not stand by itself as a complete thought.


Ex. My mom needs to go to the store. (independent clause)

Gets some bread. (subordinate clause)


An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or pronoun. An adverb clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or an adverb.


Ex.

Chapter 7: Kinds of sentence structures (simple, compound, complex, compound-complex sentences)

A simple sentence contains one indpendent clause andno subject clauses. A compund sentance contains two or more indepent and no subornate clauses. A complex sentance contains one indpent clause and at leaset one subornate clause. A compound-complex sentance contains two or more indepent clauses and at least one subornate clause.

chapter 8: agreement (subject and verb, pronoun and antecedent)

When a word refers to one person, place, thing, or idea it is singular in number.When a word refers to more than one, it is plural in number. A verb should agree in number with its subject. Singular subjects take singular verbs. Plural subjects take plural verbs.


Ex. Class (singular)

Classes (plural)


The number of a subject is not changed by a phrase following the subject. The following indefinite pronouns are singular: anybody, anyone, each, either,everybody, everyone, everything, neither, nobody, no one,nothing, one, somebody, someone, and something. The following indefinite pronouns are plural: both, few, many, and several. The indefinite pronouns all, any, more, most, none, and some may be either singular or plural depending on their meaning in the sentence.

Subjects joined by and usually take a plural verb. Singular subjects joined by or or nor take a singular verb. When a singular subject and plural subject are joined by or or nor, the verb agrees with the subject near the verb.

A collective noun may be either singular or plural, depending o its meaning in the sentence. When the subject follows the verb, find the subject and make sure the verb agrees with it. Some nouns that are plural in form take singular verbs. An expression of an amount (a measurement, a percentage, or a fraction, for example) may be singular or plural, depending on how it's used.

Even when in plural form, the title of a creative work (such as book, song, film, or painting), the name of an organisation, or the name of a country or city generally takes a singular verb. Don't and doesn't should agree in number with the subject. A pronoun should agree in number and gender with their antecedent.

Use a singular pronoun to refer to anybody, anyone, anything, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, neither, nobody, no one, nothing, one, somebody, someone, or something. Use a plural pronoun to refer to both, few, many, or several. The indefinite pronoun to refer to both, few, many, or several. The indefinite pronouns all, any, more, most, none, and some may be singular or plural, depending on how they are used in a sentence. Use a singular pronoun to refer to two or more singular antecedents joined by or or nor. Use a plural pronoun to refer to two or more antecedents joined by and.

A pronoun that refers to a collective count has the same number as the noun. An expression of an amount may take a singular or plural pronoun, depending on how the expression is used. Even when pural in form the tilttle of a creative work( such as a book, song film, or painting), the name of an organization, or the name of a country or city usually takes a singular pronoun

Chapter 9: Using Verbs Correctly (principle parts, regular and irregular, tense, voice)

The principle parts of a verb are the base form, the present participle, the past participle, and the present participle. A regular verb forms its past and present participle by adding -ed or -d to the base form. An irregular verb forms its past particple in some way other than adding -d or -ed to the base form. The tence of a verb indicates the time of the action or the sate of being that is expressed by the verb.


Ex. B- talk PP- is talking P- talked PP- have talked (regular verb)

B- sing P- sang PP- have sung( irregular verb)

I have seen (Singular-present perfect tense)

Chapter 10: Using pronouns correctly (nominative and objective case forms)

Case is the form that a noun or pronoun takes to show its relationship to other words. The subject of a verb should be in the nominative case. A predicate nominative should be in the nominative case. Direct object and indirect objects should be in the objective case. The Object of the preposition should be in the objective case.


Ex. Nc- I Oc- me Pc- my

He and I mowed the lawns. (He and I- subject)

The kids that moved the lawns were he and she. (He and She-PN)

Mom called me and told be to mow the neighbor's lawn too. (mow- obj of prep)

Mom called me and told be to mow the neighbor's lawn too. (me-do)

Chapter 11: using modifiers (comparison and placement)

Adjectives make the meanings of nouns and pronouns more specific. Adverbs make the meanings of the verbs, adjective, and other adverbs more specific. The positive degree is used when at last one thing is being described. The comparative degree is used when two things or groups of things are being compared. The superlative degree is used when three or more things or groups of things are being compared.


Ex. When I got home from school I ate a couple juicy green grapes. ( juicy, green-adj)

I took my shoes of gracefully. (gracefully- adv)


Use good to modify a noun or a pornoun in most cases. Use well to modify a verb. Use adj, not adv, after linking verbs. Avoid using double comparisons. Avoid using double negatives. Place modifying words, phrases, and clauses as close as possible to the words they modify.