How Human Learning Takes Place

Understanding the Mastery Process

Knowledge and knowing are outcomes of learning.

Knowledge in the cognitive perspective includes both subject-specific (science, literature, football, etc) and general cognitive abilities such as strategizing, problem solving, and comprehending language*. After understanding how learning takes place, educators will be better equipped to identify and master laws of learning as well as be able to implement them to all people regardless of age group, knowledge, and individual difference.

How does knowledge affect learning?

Changes in behavior occur when knowledge and perception change*.

The most important element in any learning situation is the individual's prior knowledge. What is already known and familiar with determines a great amount of what will be learned, remembered and forgotten.

References

*Greeno, J.G., A.M., & Resnick L. 1996. Cognition and Learning. Handbook of Educational Psychology (pp. 15-45). New York: MacMillan.

**Marks, I. M. (2004). The Nobel Prize award in physiology to Ivan Petrovich Pavlov − 1904. Australian & New Zealand Journal Of Psychiatry, 38(9), 674-677.

*Hoy, Anita Woolfolk. 2016. Educational psychology. Thirteenthition. ed. Boston: Pearson. (ch. 8)

**http://stanford.edu/dept/psychology/bandura/bandura-bio-pajares/Albert%20_Bandura%20_Biographical_Sketch.html (accessed 2/9/2016)

*Hoy, Anita Woolfolk. 2016. Educational psychology. Thirteenthition. ed. Boston: Pearson. (ch. 8)