Unit 15

The Principles of a Safe and Effective Exercise Session

what are the principles of training?

Components of fitness are strength, aerobic endurance, muscular endurance, flexibility, body composition.

Strength - its a physical related aspect of fitness. its the ability to exert force on a specific muscle or muscle group over a single, maximal or explosive contraction. the more muscle that you have the more weight you can force or lift. The kind of activities that matches this is going to a gym.

Aerobic Endurance - is the ability for the heart and lungs to work together to fuel the body with oxygen and this will increase their cardiovascular and muscular endurance, this will improve you to last for long period in activity. the kind of activities its related to is long distance running, swimming, cycling etc.

Muscular Endurance - This is similar to aerobic endurance, instead of doing a activity for long periods, its being able to use the same muscle group and repeating the muscle contraction without it fatiguing. The kind of activities that related to it is press ups/sit ups, tennis, cycling.

Flexibility - the ability of each muscle to see how far your range of movement can achieve. increase you can be able to stretch for an extent without pulling a muscle and stop certain muscle injuries and decrease will increase in muscle soreness. the kind of activities that you can use to improve this is yoga.

Body composition - this is the amount of body fat you have, verses the amount of lean muscle you have, bones and muscles. several tests are used to measure it like underwater weighing, skin fold test. doing exercises will increase your body composition, then will decrease the fat percentage to improve your muscle percentage to become more lean.

Adaptations to training


Frequency - This is the amount of time you are allowing yourself to train per week, you should be looking at training around 3 times per week.

Intensity - This is for how hard you are going to work in your sessions, you should be looking at overload, also look at weight, distance, MHR and intensity.

Time - Looking at how long each session is going to last, for health reasons it should be over 30 minutes.

Type - The type of session your going to do, make sure it is related to you, example of a long distance runner, they should work on continuous training.