Cell Project

By: Ashlee Congleton

Cell Membrane

Description- A biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment.

Function- To protect the cell from it's outside surroundings.

Present in... Both plants and animals. However plant cells also have cell walls made of cellulose

Cell Wall

Description- A rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside the plasma cells of plants, fungi and bacteria.

Function- To act as a pressure vessel.

Present in... Both plants and animals. A few additional structures are found in plant cells.

Cytoplasm

Description- The fluid that fills a cell.

Function- Responsible for giving the cell it's shape. It helps to fill out the cell and keeps the organelles in it's place.

Present in... Both animals and plants

Nucleus

Description- A membrane bound structure that contains the cell's hereditary information and controls the cell's growth and reproduction.

Function- To maintain integrity of these genes and to control the activities of the cell by regulating gene expression. The nucleus is also the control center of the gene.

Present in... Both animals and plants.

Nuclear Membrane

Description- The double-layered membrane surrounding the nucleus of the eukaryotic cell.

Function- To act as a barrier that separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm.

Present in... Both animals and plants

Nucleolus

Description- The largest structure in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells where it primarily serves as the site of ribosome synthesis and assembly.

Function- To make ribosomes

Present in... Only plant cells.

Centrioles

Description- Help the cell to divide.

Function- To act as a springboard on which other structures of the cell can be assembled.

Present in... Animal cells only

Chromatin

Description- A complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein and RNA.

Function- To package DNA into a smaller volume to fit into the cell. the strengthen the DNA to allow mitosis and meiosis, and to control gene expression and DNA replication.

Present in... Both plant and animal cells.

Ribosomes

Description- A large and complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the primary site of biological protein translation.

Function- To make proteins from all amino acids.

Present in... Both plant and animal cells.

Golgi Apparatus

Description- Packaging organelle.

Function- To modify, sort, and package proteins for secretion.

Present in... Both plant and animal cells.

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Description- A network of membranes found throughout the cell and connected to the nucleus.

Function- To fold protein molecules in sacs called cisternae and the transport of synthesized proteins vesicles to the Golgi apparatus.

Present in... Both plant and animal cells.

Mitochondria

Description- A membrane bound organelle found in most eukaryotic cells (the cells that make up plants, animals, fungi, and many other forms of life).

Function- Often referred to as the powerhouse of the cells. They generate the energy that our cells need to do their jobs.

Present in... Both plant and animal cells.

Chloroplast

Description- Food producer of the cell.

Function- To conduct photosynthesis.

Present in... Only plant cells. Plant cells have chloroplast because they produce their own food while animals do not.

Lysosomes

Descripton- Holds enzymes that were created by the cell.

Function- To digest things

Present in... Only plant cells. Lysosomes are usually not evident in animal cells.

Peroxisomes

Description- A small organelle that is present in the cytoplasm of many cells and that contains the reducing enzyme catalase and usually some oxidases.

Function- The breakdown of very long chain fatty acids through beta-oxidation.

Present in... Both plant and animal cells.

Vacuole

Description- A membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells.

Function- to isolate materials that might be harmful or a threat to the cell.

  • Present in... Present in both plant and animal cells. However they are very small in animal cells.
  • Cytoskeleton

    Description- Series of intercellular proteins that help a cell with shape, support and movement.

    Function- To provide an important structural framework for cell shape.

    Present in... Both plant and animal cells.