Ethical Research Infographic

Elena Y.

Gathering Relevant Information (Paper or Digital)

Some of the more reliable resources available to you include...(Digital)

  • .gov (The most reliable)
  • .edu (Pretty reliable)
  • .org (Mostly reliable)
-Examples of Reliable Sources-

  • Ebsco Hoist
  • CIA World Factbook
  • Morgue File
  • (My Mid Continent Public Library)
  • Encyclopedia Britannica
  • CultureGrams
  • SIRS Issue Researcher

You can always check your school's website to see what they have listed for good researching websites!

Hard Copy

  • Go to your public or school library and ask the librarians for a book with your topic
  • Make sure you know how your library is organized (i.e 549 TOL)
  • Be sure that you can find your specific topic in the table of contents of the book
  • Utilize guidelines given to you to help you find a good book

Research Questions to get Relevant Information:

  • Do an advanced search to eliminate any irrelevant topics
  • Use ctrl+f to find words in a website to check if the website is relevant
  • In your research question, make sure it isn't too broad
  • Be specific, for example if you type in Dolphins to Google, instead of the animal it could pop up with the football team.
  • Make sure you can actually answer your research question
  • A good research question gets you an easy pre-write
  • Your research question should be able to explain your whole piece

Using Search terms (Keywords) Effectively

  • Make sure that you do an advanced search, this way you can add in more keywords
  • Be specific, nothing too broad. Otherwise you won't find relevant information. (i.e instead of just typing in 'Dolphins' into Google, type in 'Dolphin Animal', otherwise you might get the football team)
  • Ebsco Host has an advanced search where you can add something to where you can say: 'Eagles' then you can use the option to put 'Not Sports Teams'
  • If you find a website but don't want to scroll to find the needed information, do ctrl+f to find certain keywords.

How to Decide if a Website or Resource is Credible/Accurate

  • Check the URL, if it's something like then it is very likely that it won't be credible, however if its something like .gov then it is very credible.
  • See if the author is well known for having good information and accuracy.
  • If the website is by a large company (i.e Apple), then it is usually always credible
  • The most reliable URL's are generally .gov, .edu, and .org
  • If the website has lots of ads, then it most likely is credible. (i.e an official website like Apple has no ads)
  • Check to see if big companies are sponsoring the website, it is more likely to be credible and accurate

The Differences Between Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing



  • Quoting is when you take an author's exact words and put them into ", "
  • You don't change anything at all
  • You cite the author's information after, usually in parentheses
  • If you don't cite the author's information after, it's plagiarizing
  • Quotes should never be more than 50% of your paper, if they are more than 50% of it it is considered plagiarizing



  • Paraphrasing is taking an author's words and changing the order, the words, but not the meaning of them, to put into your essay/piece
  • With paraphrasing you still have to cite your source.
  • If you don't paraphrase properly with enough changes, then it is considered plagiarizing
  • If you seem to altar the author's real meaning then it is considered plagiarizing
  • Paraphrasing is NOT just changing a few words
  • Paraphrasing is NOT just changing order
  • You must change both order and words, remove words, and add words in order to make it a proper paraphrase.



  • Summarizing is putting the author's main ideas in your own words
  • It only focuses on the main points/ideas
  • The summarizing must still be cited
  • The summary should cover all of the story
  • If the reader hasn't read what story you summarized, then they should be able to get a good general idea of what it was about

What Plagiarizing is and How to Avoid it

The General Definition of Plagiarism: Presenting words, ideas, images, sounds, or the creative expressions of others as your own.

The Two Types Of Plagiarism

Intentional Examples


  • Copying a friends work
  • Borrowing or Buying a paper
  • Cutting or pasting text directly into your paper
  • Completely typing a full paragraph copied in

Unintentional Examples


  • Poor paraphrasing
  • Poor citation or forgetting to cite
  • Using too many quotes (More than 50% of the paper is just quotes

Consequences for Plagiarism


  • F on the assignment
  • Suspension or expulsion from school
  • Dismissal from school or sports activities
  • Prison (For government officials only)

MLA Citation

  • MLA Citation stands for Modern Language Association
  • MLA Citation includes sponsor or publisher names, publishing dates, special abbreviations, and n.d. when no publication dates are provided
  • Include a URL (Optional)
  • Page numbers
  • Article name in quotation marks
  • Editor and author names
  • Title of the website, project, or book in italics
  • Publisher name and date