The Jovian Planets
Come experince our solar system's unknown mysteries
Jupiter takes nearly 12 years to circle the sun, although it spins counter clockwise on its axis once every 9 hours and 55 minutes. Jupiter's atmosphere consists of about 90% hydrogen and 10% helium, with small amounts of methane, ammonia, and water vapor. Jupiter is perpetually covered with clouds composed of ammonia crystals and possibly ammonium hydrosulfide. The clouds are located in the tropopause and are arranged into bands of different latitudes, known as tropical regions. These are sub-divided into lighter-hued zones and darker belts. The interactions of these conflicting circulation patterns cause storms and turbulence. Wind speeds of 100 m/s . The cloud layer is only about 50 kilometers deep, and consists of at least two decks of clouds: a thick lower deck and a thin clearer region. There may also be a thin layer of water clouds underlying the ammonia layer. The colors seen in Jupiter's upper atmosphere are though to be the result of chemical reactions induced by sunlight and/or by lightning in the atmosphere. However, this is still an open question. Because Jupiter is considered a gas planet, its atmosphere is then considered its surface. Jupiter does have a surface but it is not solid and there is still not a term scientists have assigned to it. Jupiter's natural satellites include its roughly 64 moons divided into three categories: fragmented moonlets, the four Galilean satellites, and the remaining 56 which orbit in a clockwise direction, opposite from the rest of Jupiter's moons. Jupiter's rings are known to be made of tiny particles, extending 0.8 planetary radius from the planet's surface. The rings are thought to be continually replenished, likely from meteoroid impacts on small moonlets within or near it.
Named after the Roman god of the sky, our third destination takes us 2.88 billion kilometers from the sun to Uranus. With a diameter of 51,000 kilometers, Uranus density had been calculated to be 1.27 times that of water. Since we discovered that Uranus can subject materials to pressure 2 million times that of Earth's atmosphere, it may be that Uranus has a very small rocky core or no core at all. Like Venus, Uranus orbits clockwise once every 84 years around the Sun. However, it still rotates counterclockwise on its axis once every 17 hours and 14 minutes. Like Jupiter and Saturn, Uranus's atmosphere also consists mostly of hydrogen and helium, with some methane. The absorption of red light by the methane reflecting the rest on the spectrum gives Uranus its blue color. Uranus is so gaseous that it doesn't really have a surface. As such, the surface of Uranus is one of the most fascinating things that one can study. In fact, it's so unique that its atmosphere is actually its surface. The giant gaseous planet has no solid surface and what we've learned is that the surface is composed of fluids. The whole make up of Uranus being a giant planet is its gases. Uranus is actually a massive heavenly body made up of ice and gas. Its center which is icy will freeze objects that pass through its atmosphere before reaching the surface Unlike Jupiter and Saturn, Uranus does not have any cloud layers. Uranus' natural satellites includes it 27 moons. Since Uranus' rings only reflect about 5% of the sunlight that hits them, they are not visible from Earth . The rings are made of a dark material, as dark as soot. To date, there are 13 rings to Uranus.
Neptune’s troposphere is composed of clouds that differ in composition based on the ranging altitude. Methane clouds fill the upper-level of Neptune. Presuures between 1-5 bars allow ammonia and hydrogen sulfide clouds to form. If the pressure is more than 5 bars, ammonium sulfide, hydrogen sulfide and water clouds may form. Clouds of water-ice may form at 50 bars of pressure. The lower stratosphere of Neptune is foggy because of the condensation of acetylene and ethane. There are also small amounts of hydrogen cyanide and carbon monoxide present in Neptune. The thermosphere of Neptune has a very high temperature, around 750 K. Scientists haven’t figured out where the heat generates from as Neptune is very far from the Sun. Many theories have been suggested and have yet to be proven. Neptune's natural satellites consists of its 13 moons. These moons are classified as Regular Moons and Irregular Moons. Regular moons are closer to the planet, some even closer than Neptune’s planetary rings. Irregular moons orbit farther from Neptune. Neptune's rings are faint and dense. Even the densest of the five rings of Neptune pale in comparison to the less dense rings of Saturn. It is comparable to Jupiter’s rings that are mostly made of dust particles. These five rings were discovered by the Voyager 2 in 1989 and have been studied by astronomers ever since.