Principales of Training

Specificity, Progression, Overload, Reversibility, Tedium

Sport Principles







Triaining programmes must be specific to the needs of the sport and performer.

You must consider the components of fitness

You must require services


The training programme must be made progressively harder.

Once the body adapts to stresses and loads placed upon them no further changes will occur.

It must be steady yet consistent, overload is an essential element to progress and adapt.


In order for the body yo adapt it must work harder than normal.

The body can be overloaded by manipulating five key factors of training: FITTA

Frequency: How often?

Intensity: How hard we train?

Time: Length of time spent on an activity

Type: Describes the type of activity

Adherence: Ensuring the individual sticks to the programme


Frequency- Number of training sessions conducted per day or per week. It will depend on the interaction of exercise intensity and duration, the training status of the athlete and the specific sport season.

Intensity- High-intensity aerobic exercise increases cardiovascular and respiratiory function and allows for improved oxygen delivery to the working muscles. Increasing exercice intensity may also benefit skeletal muscle adaptions by affecting muscle fiber recruitment.

Time- Exercice duration is the length of time of the training session. The duration of a training session is often influenced by the exercice intensity: the longer the exercice duration, the lower the exercice intensity.

Type- Exercice mode is the specific activity performed by the athlete: cycling, running, swimming and so on.

Adherence/Progression- Progression and results influence adherence. Frequency, intensity or duration shouldn't increase by more than 10% each week. Progression of intensity should be monitored to prevent overtraining.

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It takes much longer to gain fitness than it does to lose it. If we train our muscles get bigger (hypertrophy), alternatively if we don't our muscles get smaller (atrophy)


Training must be varied to ensure the athlete/performer mantains motivation. If the same activity is performed frequently, training becomes repetitive and boring.