HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus
also known as AIDS
HIV is a virus that could be life threatening without being treated. Symptoms of HIV are flu like symptoms such as fever, sore throat, and fatigue. Then the disease is usually asymptomatic until it progresses to AIDS. AIDS symptoms include weight loss, fever or night sweats, fatigue, and recurrent infections.
HIV can be contracted by sharing needles, sex, and any other form of bodily fluid contact.
Immune Cells Involved in Immune Response:
The immune system sends t-cells and b-cells in response to HIV, and while these cells do get rid of some of the HIV, some t-cells are infected and the virus replicates. T-helper cells are the cells that HIV specifically targets. If these cells are infected, they can't signal that something is wrong.
How Virus Replicates:
the virus replicates when a healthy cell, normally a T-Helper cell becomes infected by an HIV virion (virus particle) and then produces many new virions. It replicates through the lysogenic cycle. The first step is entry, the HIV attaches to the outside of a white blood cell Once attached, HIV can inject its core into the cell. Then Once inside the cell, the virus’ core breaks open and releases RNA and another enzyme The enzyme turns the virus’ RNA into viral DNA. The process will most likely have an error Because of the mutations some medications may no longer work. The next step is Integration where the viral DNA is then integrated into the cell's normal DNA. then the CD4 cell begins to produce more and more HIV. Then replication occurs the HIV DNA now changes the cell to make the various HIV viral proteins. Next is budding the HIV components gather inside the perimeter of the infected cell.These viruses Then “bud” off from the host cell. they rip themselves from the cell, taking a piece of the cell membrane with them to form their own viral membranes. The virus now has to mature During the maturation process, another enzyme cuts the HIV proteins into smaller units that reassemble into a mature virus that can infect other cells.
HIV can not be completely treated, but Antiretroviral treatment keeps the levels of HIV in your blood low. The Antiretroviral stops HIV from replicating, but does not kill existing infected cells. It doesn’t get rid of it but lets your immune system recover.
The ways to prevent HIV are:
Get tested and know your partner's HIV status. …
To prevent yourself from getting HIV there is PrEP, a medication that can stop the virus.
Have less risky sex
Limit your number of sexual partners
Get tested and treated for STDs
Talk to your healthcare provider about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)
Don't inject drugs