Types of Mining and Fracking

Emily, Daniella and Alyssa

Surface and substance mining

Differences:

surface- less expensive, safer, 90% rocks and minerals mined in us is produced by surface mining, more healthy for miners and lay on surface or close to it.

subsurface- many minerals lays underground, expensive, dangerous, deep underground, extraction is difficult, tunnels and channels must be built for miners safety, need commitments to guarantee safety and pressure and high temperature.

Types of surface mining



Open Pit: used when an ore bed covers a large area. Includes distance and depth.

https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/High_School_Earth_Science/Mining_and_Using_Minerals


http://web.mit.edu/12.000/www/m2016/finalwebsite/problems/mining.html

effects on environment: Lots of land only gives a little bit of minerals so a lot has to be mined.

It exposes toxic chemical and other harmful disasters.

strip mining- When an ore bed covers a large area but is not as deep.

http://landslides.photoshelter.com/image/I0000S5EkpoiZiPM

http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/campaigns/climate-change/coal/Mining-impacts/

effects on the environment:

Topsoil is cleared destroying the land and plants, water that goes through takes sediment with it clogging rivers and hurting water life, minerals from deep in the earth get in the water contaminating it and lots of dust is created.

Mountaintop removal mining: includes mining the top of a mountain by removing coal and land.

http://appvoices.org/end-mountaintop-removal/


http://appvoices.org/end-mountaintop-removal/ecology/

effects on the environment: Buries a lot of streams

Takes minerals out of the soil and prevents plants from growing.

Types of subsurface mining

Slope: Its pretty much shaft mining except the coal is near the surface and is accessed by a burrow that is unearthed on a slant.

http://www.greatmining.com/slope-mining.html

Effect on the environment: Dust pollutes the air, land is destroyed and sediment is disturbed making it easier for water to carry it away.

http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/mining.aspx

http://www.wvcoalmining.com/coal-news/slope-mining.html

Drift: A horizontal passage underground in a mine.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drift_mining

Effects on the environment: disturbs the earth and animals living on it, rocks can fall from the disturbance of mining and noise pollution.

http://web.mit.edu/12.000/www/m2016/finalwebsite/problems/mining.html

http://eco-friendlybgray.blogspot.com/2013/03/5-methods-of-mining.html

Shaft: when shafts are pushed from top to bottom to extract the minerals.

http://www.greatmining.com/shaft-mining.html

Effects on the environment: tunnel collapses, land subsidence and toxic chemicals becoming unearthed.

http://web.mit.edu/12.000/www/m2016/finalwebsite/problems/mining.html

http://www.saburchill.com/history/chapters/IR/016.html

Fracking

Fracking: injecting liquid at high pressure into rocks, boreholes, etc., so to force open cracks to extract oil or gas.
effect on the environment: Contamination of groundwater, toxic chemicals, waste disposal, ect.

http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/health/case_studies/hydrofracking_w.html

http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-14432401

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