Chapter 13.4

Urban patterns in Europe

the pattern of Urbanization in Europe.

The pattern of urbantzation in Western Europe

Klaus R. Kunzmann and Michael Wegener

Klaus R. Kunzmann is professor at the lnstitute of Spatial Planning of the University of Dortmund (IRPUD),Germany, since 1974. He grad- uated in architecture and urban planning from the Technical Univer- sity of Munich and got his Ph.D from the Technical University of Vienna, Austria, where he taught urban planning from 1967 to 1971 before joining a consulting firm in Düsseldorf and working in various Third World countries. He was the founding president of the Europe' an Association of European Schools of Planning (AESOP). ln 1990 he was a visiting professor at the Universitö Paris Vlll and in 1991 was offered the chair of city and regional planning at the Technical lJniversity of Vienna. His main research interests include innovative policies of spatial development and restructuring in traditional indus- trial regions, in developing regions and in Europe as a whole. Mi- chaet Wegener is a senior research fellow at the lnstitute of Spatial Planning of the University of Doftmund (IRPUD), Germany. He grad- uated in architecture and urban planning from the Technical Univer- sity of Berlin and earned his Ph.D at the lnstitute of Technology of Aachen. Before coming to Doftmund, he worked with Battelle-lnstitut e.V. Frankfurt and at the lnternational lnstitute of Applied Systems Analysis in Laxenburg, Austria. ln 1988/89 he spent a year as a pro- fessor of regional planning at the University of Tokyo, Japan. His main research interests are urban and regional analysis, in particular of the tand use transport interface, demography, housing markets, urban structural change, spatial informations systems and planning theory.

The paper argues that the large cities and the many small towns of Europe play a vital role for the economic and social development of Europe as a whole. lt highlights imbalances in the urban system in Europe which threaten to increase in the future. These imbalances, although rooted in the history of the countries of Europe, result from the growing interna- tionalization of the economy. They will be further accelerated by the forthcoming Single European Market.

A number of urban issues which are raised in this paper re- quire attention and continuous and careful monitoring and cushioning intervention at the national, regional and local lev- els of policy making and, within the constraints given by the subsidiarity principle, also at the Community level.

Background trends 1960-1990 and beyond

Throughout human history cities have been pacemakers of change. History's great cultural achievements, technological innovations and political movements originated in cities. Cities are the incubators of new economic activities and life styles' Yet at the same time cities are also themselves subject to the secular and global trends they help to generate. The patterns of urbanization in Europe therefore cannot be understood with- out taking account of the dominant background trends (table 1) in fields such as population, migration, life styles, the econo- my, transport and communications, and environment and re- sources (see MASSER et al., forthcoming).

urban patterns.

in : EuropeanCities – Insights on outskirts, Report COST Action 10 Urban Civil Engineering, Vol. 2, Structures, edited byA. Borsdorf and P. Zembri, Brussels, 2004, 79-105 Comparing the morphology of urban patterns in Europe – a fractal approachPierre Frankhauser 1 ThéMA, UMR CNRS 6049, Université deFranche-Comté , Besançon, France; _________________________________________________ AbstractThe sprawling urban patterns typical for the outskirts of many European metropolitan areas seem to be amorphous and it is difficult to find references for describing them. However, for managing sprawl it seems important to have quantitative descriptors, which allow distinguishing different types of urban patterns and which are lessambiguous than traditional density measures. A better knowledge of the morphology of these patterns should also point to the underlying context of urbanisation at their root. More concretely: to what extent are planned patterns different from less planned ones?Do planned or unplanned patterns show comparable morphological features? The present contribution shows how going back fractal geometry may help to find answers to these questions. A more intuitive introduction to fractal geometry and its application to urban patterns is followed by a definition of the measuring concept used,which helps analysing their morphology. The presentation of a large number of examples helps to understand the information transcribed by these measures and todevelop another type of approach to sprawling and less sprawling patterns. Moreover it will indeed be possible to establish links to the planning policy at the root of these patterns. The final topic tackles the question, to what extent knowledge about the form of these patterns may be used for managing urban sprawl in future under the aspect of a more sustainable development
Chapter 13 Urban Patterns
Urban Patterns-World Cities: AP Human Geography