Urban patterns in Europe
the pattern of Urbanization in Europe.
The pattern of urbantzation in Western Europe
Klaus R. Kunzmann and Michael Wegener
Klaus R. Kunzmann is professor at the lnstitute of Spatial Planning of the University of Dortmund (IRPUD),Germany, since 1974. He grad- uated in architecture and urban planning from the Technical Univer- sity of Munich and got his Ph.D from the Technical University of Vienna, Austria, where he taught urban planning from 1967 to 1971 before joining a consulting firm in Düsseldorf and working in various Third World countries. He was the founding president of the Europe' an Association of European Schools of Planning (AESOP). ln 1990 he was a visiting professor at the Universitö Paris Vlll and in 1991 was offered the chair of city and regional planning at the Technical lJniversity of Vienna. His main research interests include innovative policies of spatial development and restructuring in traditional indus- trial regions, in developing regions and in Europe as a whole. Mi- chaet Wegener is a senior research fellow at the lnstitute of Spatial Planning of the University of Doftmund (IRPUD), Germany. He grad- uated in architecture and urban planning from the Technical Univer- sity of Berlin and earned his Ph.D at the lnstitute of Technology of Aachen. Before coming to Doftmund, he worked with Battelle-lnstitut e.V. Frankfurt and at the lnternational lnstitute of Applied Systems Analysis in Laxenburg, Austria. ln 1988/89 he spent a year as a pro- fessor of regional planning at the University of Tokyo, Japan. His main research interests are urban and regional analysis, in particular of the tand use transport interface, demography, housing markets, urban structural change, spatial informations systems and planning theory.
The paper argues that the large cities and the many small towns of Europe play a vital role for the economic and social development of Europe as a whole. lt highlights imbalances in the urban system in Europe which threaten to increase in the future. These imbalances, although rooted in the history of the countries of Europe, result from the growing interna- tionalization of the economy. They will be further accelerated by the forthcoming Single European Market.
A number of urban issues which are raised in this paper re- quire attention and continuous and careful monitoring and cushioning intervention at the national, regional and local lev- els of policy making and, within the constraints given by the subsidiarity principle, also at the Community level.
Background trends 1960-1990 and beyond
Throughout human history cities have been pacemakers of change. History's great cultural achievements, technological innovations and political movements originated in cities. Cities are the incubators of new economic activities and life styles' Yet at the same time cities are also themselves subject to the secular and global trends they help to generate. The patterns of urbanization in Europe therefore cannot be understood with- out taking account of the dominant background trends (table 1) in fields such as population, migration, life styles, the econo- my, transport and communications, and environment and re- sources (see MASSER et al., forthcoming).