Types of Mining & Fracking
Ava P. & Ethan R.
- less expensive
- more widely used
- difficult to extract
- expensive due to increased safety equipment
Types of Surface Mining:
- used when an ore bed covers an area, but isn't very deep
- removal of two long rows of parallel material
- develops washboard-like pattern
- used when ore bed covers very large area in distance & depth
- explosives blast apart ore beds
- develops bowl-like shape
Mountain Top Removal
- mining of a summit/summit ridge of mountain
- coal seams extracted by removal of land above
- turns mountain tops flatter
Types of Subsurface Mining:
- shaft travels in a slope towards ore
- ends perpendicular to the ground
- mining is carried out from there
- dug directly into side of land where ore lies
- similar to slope mining, yet not cut into top on land
- dug straight down from surface into ore bed
- no slope, unlike slope mining
What Is Fracking?
Drilling and injecting fluid at high pressure in order to fracture shale rocks and release natural gas inside.
How Is It Done?
- Water is mixed with sand and chemicals to create fracking fluid
- Pumped at high pressure and fractures shale rocks and releases natural gas
How Does It Effect the Environment?
- Methane gas and toxic chemicals can leak into groundwater
- Contaminates water
- Causes sensory, respiratory, and neurological damage if ingested
- Only 30-50% fracturing fluid is recovered
- Rest is left behind and not biodegradable