Biology Study

By: Christina Sprague

What's is Water?

  • Adhesion- attraction of H20 molecules to other substances.
  • Cohesion- attraction of water molecules to each others.
  • Heat Storage- water can hold a lot of energy in it. It takes a long time to warm up and cool down.
  • pH- water can cause separation in solutions leaving H+ AND OH-ions causing solutions to be acidic or basic.


  • Macromolecules- large molecules made with Carbon (c). Other atoms used are Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus and Sulfur.
  • Types of Macromolecules:



3. Lipids

4. Nucleic Acids


  • Carbohydrate- organic compound made of Hydrogen (H), Carbon (C), and Oxygen CHO2. Key source of energy for the body. Found in most foods.
  • Importance of Carbohydrates-

1. energy stores (4calories/gram)

2. structural (ex: cellulose in plants

3. cell communication

4. defense against invading viruses and bacteria

  • Types of Carbohydrates:

1. Monosaccharides-Basic source of energy for cells. Mono=1, Sacch=sweet, sugar. Ex: glucose, fructose (fruit sugar)

2. Disaccharides- A chain of two monosaccharides linked together by a covalent bond. Digested by the human body to be used in cells. Ex: sucrose(table sugar, lactose(milk)

3. Polysaccharides- A chain of 3 or more. Can be very large; a macromolecule. Stores plant energy; needs to be digested by the human body . Ex: starches- cellulose, chitin

4. Oligosaccharides- 2 to 20 monosaccharide unit. Cell flags, identifiers


  • Lipid-(Fats) make up cell membranes and long term energy.
  • Types of Fats:

1. Saturated fats-Long chains of carbons with all bonds filled by hydrogen. Solid at room temperature. Ex: butter, lard muscle fat

2. Unsaturated fats- Have one double bond (mono) which causes a "kink" in the chain that does not allow the fat to solidify. Ex: veg oil

3. Polyunsaturated fats- Have move one double bond in the chains

Nucleic Acids

  • Types of Nucleic Acids:

1. Deoxiribonucleic Acid (DNA)

2. Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)- They carry our genetic information. They code for amino acids (Proteins).

3. Adenosine Tr. Phosphate (ATP)- "Molecular currency" of energy transfer in cells. Phosphate bonds contain a lot of potential energy that is released when they are broken.