The Cardiovascular System

Blood

Blood characteristics

  • Four to Six liters
  • Seven to nine percent of it is body weight
  • Only Liquid tissue
  • Its a connective tissue
  • Made of 55% Plasma and formed elements, 45%

Where & How Blood is Made

Blood is produced in the bone marrow, in bones, Primary in the flat bones, such as your skull. All cells come from one group, the " stem cells". They can produce whatever kind of blood the body needs the most. They can produce the red cells, white cells and the platelets.

Plasma

  • 93% Water
  • contains proteins, glucose, hormones, clotting factors, electrolytes & CO2
  • looks yellow
  • carries nutrients

~Plasma Protein-any of several proteins normally found in the plasma; includes albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen.

~Serum- blood plasma minus its clotting factors, still contains antibodies.

~Albumins- one of several types of proteins normally found in blood plasma; helps thicken blood.

~Globulins- a type of plasma protein that includes antibodies.

~fibrinogen- soluble blood protein that is converted to insoluble fibrin during clotting

~Prothrombin- a protein present in normal blood that required for blood clotting

Red Blood Cells

  • also called erythrocytes
  • 45% blood
  • Oxygen to body tissue in exchange for carbon dioxide
  • transport oxygen
  • small biconcave disk
  • red round blob


  1. Erythrocytes - red blood cells
  2. Hemoglobin - iron containing protein in red blood cells
  3. Oxyhemoglobin - hemoglobin combined with oxygen
  4. Carbaminohemoglobin - the compound formed by the union of carbon dioxide with hemoglobin

White Blood Cells

  • protect body from bacteria


  1. leukocytes- white blood cells
  2. Neutrophil - white blood cell that stains readily with neutral dyes
  3. Eosinophil - white blood cell that is readily stained by eosin, attacks parasitic worms. Red/orange, biolobed
  4. Basophil- white blood cells that stains readily with with basic dyes, Produce histamine and heparin, cause inflammation, dark purple, bilobbed
  5. Lymphocytes- type of white blood cell, protect against infection, not phagocytic
  6. Monocytes - a phagocyte, largest leukocytes, very phagocyte,
  7. Macrophage - phagocyric cells in the immune system, large monocytes outside blood stream.
  8. Granulocyte -white blood cells characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm
  9. Agranulocytes -white blood cells with a one lobed nucleu

Platelets

  • form clots (scabs)
  • cell fragment
  • less than 1%
  • small purple blob
  • protect body from external and invasion of diseases and bacteria


  1. Thrombocytes -also calld platelets, plays a role in blood clotting
  2. Prothrombin activator - a protein formed by clotting factors from damaged tissue cells and platelets
  3. Thrombin - protein important in blood clotting
  4. Fibrinogen- soluble blood protein that is converted to insoluble fibrin during clotting
  5. Fibrin-insoluble protein in clotted blood
  6. Coagulation-process where blood forms clots
  7. Thrombus- stationary blood clot
  8. Thrombosis- formation of a clot in a blood vessel
  9. Embolus- a blood clot or other substance that is moving in the blood and may block a blood vessel
  10. Embolism-obststruction of a blood vessel by foreign matter carried in the bloodstrem