Chapter 1

LLLS 4344 - Reader Response

6 Categories of Language Arts

1. Reading

2. Writing

3. Listening

4. Talking

5. Viewing

6. Visually Representing

All six categories should be interactive and integrated with each other. Each category should not be separated and divided from the other categories.

4 Main Instructional Approaches to Language Arts

1. Literature Focus Units

2. Literature Circles

3. Reading and Writing Workshops

4. Thematic Units

Use a combination of these within each lesson to help build students knowledge of what you are teaching them (plot development, character, etc.)

Strategies and Skills

Strategy: Used deliberately; Problem-Solving Mechanisms; Involve Critical Thinking Prcesses

Skills: Used unconsciously; Self-implemented strategies; Information-Processing Techniques

Metacognition: Knowledge children acquire about their own cognitive processes and children's regulation of their cognitive processes to maximize learning

Examples of Strategies:

Activating background knowledge, brainstorming, connecting, revising, evaluating, monitoring, inferencing, identify big ideas, predicting, organizing, questioning, summarizing, and visualizing

Teachers use a combination of direct instruction (planned) and indirect instruction (taking advantage of a teachable moment) to teach skills and strategies.

Direct and Indirect Instruction

Direct: Planned, 10-30 Minutes

Indirect: Taking advantage of a teachable moment; Rephrasing/Reexplaining/Clarifying/etc.

Four (4) Behaviors Teachers Use as Part of Both Direct and Indirect Instruction:

1. Modeling

Teacher demonstrates how to use strategy or skill

2. Coaching

Teachers encourage students active engagement in activities

3. Scaffolding

Teachers adjust the support they provide depending on students' needs

4. Fading

Teachers release control as students become more capable of performing or doing activity/skill/strategy independently

Goals of Language Arts Instruction:

For students to develop communicative competence, ability to use language appropriately in a variety of social contexts

Four (4) Language Systems used to Develop Communicative Competence:

1. Phonological - sound system

2. Semantic - Meaning system

3. Syntactic - grammar system

4. Pragmatic - social use system

Each grade level, teachers expand students' abilities to use the six language arts meaningfully in new contexts.


Authentic Assessment is important so that students' may eventually be able to self-assess their learning and learn about themselves as learners.

Teachers can ask questions:

How's it going?

What is the hardest thing about this activity?

What have you learned about yourself as a reader or writer?

What do you want to learn next?

For authentic assessment to work properly and appropriately, the teacher would need to model procedures and teach students ho to talk about their thoughts.

Assessment and Evaluation are terms that are often mixed up

Assessment: Diagnostic; Ongoing: Used to plan instruction

Evaluation: Used to judge students' learning; Usually provided by a test from textbook or end-of-year exam, etc.