The Collapse Of Rwanda

By Richard Magnus

Background of Rwanda

Rwanda is a sovereign state in Central/East Africa. It shares a border with Uganda, Tanzania, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Its main ethnic groups are the Hutu and Tutsi people. Rwanda gained its independence in 1962 from Belgium.


Because of the mass killing of the Tutsi people, The collapse of their Economy, and the spread of disease led to the civilization in Rwanda collapsing.


In Rwanda, there are two ethnicities, the Tutsi’s and the Hutus, at the time of the genocide a Hutu was in office and Tutsi people were often blamed for the countries problems. All of this tension led to disaster,The genocide was sparked by the death of the Rwandan President Juvenal Habyarimana, a Hutu, when his plane was shot down above Kigali airport on 6 April 1994.

At the same time, Tutsi refugees in Uganda - supported by some moderate Hutus - were forming the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), led by Mr Kagame. Their aim was to overthrow Habyarimana and secure their right to return to their homeland.

Habyarimana chose to exploit this threat as a way to bring dissident Hutus back to his side, and Tutsis inside Rwanda were accused of being RPF collaborators.

In August 1993, after several attacks and months of negotiation, a peace accord was signed between Habyarimana and the RPF, but it did little to stop the continued unrest.

In Kigali, the presidential guard immediately initiated a campaign of retribution. Leaders of the political opposition were murdered, and almost immediately, the slaughter of Tutsis and moderate Hutus began.

Within hours, recruits were dispatched all over the country to carry out a wave of slaughter. When the Genocide was stopped, the Hutu killers fled to Congo, and the Tutsi people were no longer being slaughtered by the Hutu’s.

2.Collapse of Government- The Aftermath

The 1994 Genocide destroyed Rwanda's fragile economic base, severely impoverished the population, particularly women, and eroded the country's ability to attract private and external investment. Emergency assistance of the people cost 307.4 million dollars, which weakened the Rwanda economy greatly. Not only did the Genocide itself weaken he economy, the efforts to fix the already weathered country was a large amount of the already low economic status of Rwanda.

3. Disease

During the Genocide, many women were raped thus spreading the HIV virus. HIV is not only a killer but it also leaves many families with just a sick mother, because the father would leave due to the fear of obtaining the virus. Thousands of people were shunned from their families, friends and society as a whole. Also the child of the war rape would become a Hutu because they follow their fathers ethnicity, and after the Genocide, Hutus were not trusted. This created a lot of unwanted children as well as unwanted family members infected by STD's or who were victims of war rape. This affected the people of Rwanda extremely negatively.


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"Rwanda: How the Genocide Happened." BBC News. BBC, 18 Dec. 2008. Web. 28 Feb. 2014. <>.

"United Human Rights Council." United Human Rights Council. United Human Rights Council, n.d. Web. 01 Mar. 2014. <>.