Mid Year Science Review
Chemistry, Earth History Infectious Diseases
- Atomic #- Number of protons & electrons in an atom of one element.The number of protons always equal to number of electrons.
- Atomic mass-The sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
- Protons-You look at the atomic number
- Neutrons-You take the atomic mass you round the nearest number and then subtract number of protons.
- Electrons-You look at the atomic number
- Groups/periods on the periodic table-Organized by increasing atomic numbers,elements are grouped together by groups/families.Groups & families are the vertical columns.All the elements in column. All elements in column have similar property's.
- Law of conservation of mass-The fact that matter can not be created nor destroyed only transferred from state to state.
- Elements-Building blocks of matter made of atoms
- Compounds-Substance formed when 2 or more elements chemically combine.
- Mixtures-Combination of 2 or more different substances that is mixed but not combined.
- Physically/chemical properties-Physically properties can be observed or measured without changing it.Chemical properties can only be observed during a chemical reaction.Describe matter based on its ability to change into new matter with different properties.
- Physical/chemical change-Physical change does not form a new substance.Chemical change is one or more substances are changed into new substances that have new and different properties.
- atomic mass-the mass of a chemical element that is equivalent to the # of protons & neutrons in the atom.
- atomic number-It is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus.
- physical properties-can be observed or measured without changing the matters identity.
- chemical properties-describe the matter based on its ability to change into new matter that has different properties.
- groups-columns(up and down)of elements on the periodic table that share common properties
- periods-the periodic table has 7 horizontal (left to right) rows known as periods
- Law of superposition-The geologic principle that states that in horizontal layer of sedimentary rock.
- Relative/absolute dating-Relative dating is when you determine past events without necessarily determining their absolute value.Absolute dating is used to determine the exact age of rock or fossils.
- Half-life/Radioactive dating-The definition for half-life is the length of time needed for half of the atoms of a sample of a radioactive isotope to decay.
- Index fossils-Are the fossil that is used to establish the age of the rock layers.Its found in the rock layers of only 1 geologic age.Found in rock layers around the world.
- Geologic time scale-Its earth history but it written on stone.
- Ice core-earth climate has a changed our time by determining the age.
- index fossils-a fossil used to establish the age of the rock layers.Found in only one geologic age. Found around the world.
- law of superposition-the geologic principle that in horizontal layer of sedimentary rock.
- half-life-the length of time needed for half of the atoms of a sample of a radioactive isotope to decay.
- relative dating-determine past events without necessarily determining their absolute value.
- absolute dating-used to determine the exact age of rock or fossil.
- Unitarianism- The theory that earth's feature are mostly accounted for by gradual small-scale processes that occurred over long periods of time.
- microorganism-there different types of microorganism bacteria,viruses,fungi,parasite and algae
- viruses-are considered to be living but they affect living things
- bacteria-there cells are prototypical,meaning they lack a true nucleus and other organelles,unicellular
- parasites-an organism that grows,feeds & is sheltered on or in a different organism while contributing nothing to be survival of its host
- fungi-is living can spread by using agents like wind,water or through contact.
- epidemic-A widespread outbreak of an infectious disease that affects a big problem.
- pandemic-An outbreak of an infectious disease that effects a big population.
- Both pandemic and epidemic can spread by contact.Some ways you can prevent them is by vaccines/antibiotics,education,good hygine,raising awareness.In case there is a disease that is epidemic or pandemic the way you should treat it is by good hygine (sanitation),travel regulations and providing health services.
- biotechnology-is the use of living cells,bacteria,to make useful products (new kinds of medicine or such as crops that insects don't like eat/destroy.
- genetic engineering-the science of making changes to the genes of a plant or animal to produce a desire result
- genetic modified organism- An organism of microorganisms whose genetic material has been altered by means of genetic engineering.
- cloning-to produce a copy
- DNA-Molecule that contains the genetic code of an organism
- bio-remediation-the use of microorganism or other forms of life to consume and break down environmental populations to clean a polluted area.
- agriculture-the science or practice of farming,including cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops