Mid Year Science Review

Chemistry, Earth History Infectious Diseases

Chemistry

Periodic table-


  • Atomic #- Number of protons & electrons in an atom of one element.The number of protons always equal to number of electrons.
  • Atomic mass-The sum of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
  • Protons-You look at the atomic number
  • Neutrons-You take the atomic mass you round the nearest number and then subtract number of protons.
  • Electrons-You look at the atomic number
  • Groups/periods on the periodic table-Organized by increasing atomic numbers,elements are grouped together by groups/families.Groups & families are the vertical columns.All the elements in column. All elements in column have similar property's.
  • Law of conservation of mass-The fact that matter can not be created nor destroyed only transferred from state to state.
  • Elements-Building blocks of matter made of atoms
  • Compounds-Substance formed when 2 or more elements chemically combine.
  • Mixtures-Combination of 2 or more different substances that is mixed but not combined.
  • Physically/chemical properties-Physically properties can be observed or measured without changing it.Chemical properties can only be observed during a chemical reaction.Describe matter based on its ability to change into new matter with different properties.
  • Physical/chemical change-Physical change does not form a new substance.Chemical change is one or more substances are changed into new substances that have new and different properties.
  • atomic mass-the mass of a chemical element that is equivalent to the # of protons & neutrons in the atom.
  • atomic number-It is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus.
  • physical properties-can be observed or measured without changing the matters identity.
  • chemical properties-describe the matter based on its ability to change into new matter that has different properties.
  • groups-columns(up and down)of elements on the periodic table that share common properties
  • periods-the periodic table has 7 horizontal (left to right) rows known as periods
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Earth History

  • Law of superposition-The geologic principle that states that in horizontal layer of sedimentary rock.
  • Relative/absolute dating-Relative dating is when you determine past events without necessarily determining their absolute value.Absolute dating is used to determine the exact age of rock or fossils.
  • Half-life/Radioactive dating-The definition for half-life is the length of time needed for half of the atoms of a sample of a radioactive isotope to decay.
  • Index fossils-Are the fossil that is used to establish the age of the rock layers.Its found in the rock layers of only 1 geologic age.Found in rock layers around the world.
  • Geologic time scale-Its earth history but it written on stone.
  • Ice core-earth climate has a changed our time by determining the age.
  • index fossils-a fossil used to establish the age of the rock layers.Found in only one geologic age. Found around the world.
  • law of superposition-the geologic principle that in horizontal layer of sedimentary rock.
  • half-life-the length of time needed for half of the atoms of a sample of a radioactive isotope to decay.
  • relative dating-determine past events without necessarily determining their absolute value.
  • absolute dating-used to determine the exact age of rock or fossil.
  • Unitarianism- The theory that earth's feature are mostly accounted for by gradual small-scale processes that occurred over long periods of time.
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Infectious diseases

  • microorganism-there different types of microorganism bacteria,viruses,fungi,parasite and algae
  • viruses-are considered to be living but they affect living things
  • bacteria-there cells are prototypical,meaning they lack a true nucleus and other organelles,unicellular
  • parasites-an organism that grows,feeds & is sheltered on or in a different organism while contributing nothing to be survival of its host
  • fungi-is living can spread by using agents like wind,water or through contact.
  • epidemic-A widespread outbreak of an infectious disease that affects a big problem.
  • pandemic-An outbreak of an infectious disease that effects a big population.
  • Both pandemic and epidemic can spread by contact.Some ways you can prevent them is by vaccines/antibiotics,education,good hygine,raising awareness.In case there is a disease that is epidemic or pandemic the way you should treat it is by good hygine (sanitation),travel regulations and providing health services.
  • biotechnology-is the use of living cells,bacteria,to make useful products (new kinds of medicine or such as crops that insects don't like eat/destroy.
  • genetic engineering-the science of making changes to the genes of a plant or animal to produce a desire result
  • genetic modified organism- An organism of microorganisms whose genetic material has been altered by means of genetic engineering.
  • cloning-to produce a copy
  • DNA-Molecule that contains the genetic code of an organism
  • bio-remediation-the use of microorganism or other forms of life to consume and break down environmental populations to clean a polluted area.
  • agriculture-the science or practice of farming,including cultivation of the soil for the growing of crops
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