Mining and Fracking

Eliot Dravneek

Surface Mining

Surface soil and rock is moved to reveal natural resources.
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Subsurface Mining

The digging of shaft deep into the ground to reveal and extract natural resources. This is done because the ore or resource that is being mined is found only deep under ground.
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Differences between surface and subsurface mining

In surface mining there are no shafts dug deep into the ground top extract ore. In subsurface mining the elevation in which they dig is deeper.

Types of surface mining

Strip mining- The removal of ore or mineral from layers of rock and soil.

Open pit mining- The removal of layers to get to valuable minerals and ore.

Mountain top removal-The destruction of a mountain line (or mountaintop) to find and extract minerals or resources.

Types of subsurface mining

Slope-When there is a tunnel at an angle to allow easy access to natural resources.

Drift-When there is a near horizontal tunnel dug to allow easy access to natural resources.

Shaft- A vertical tunnel used to extract natural resources.


The injection of liquid at high pressures into rocks to find materials like oil and gas.
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