How Will Canada Look In 2035?

Canada in 20 years.

Here We Go...

Have you ever wondered what our home Canada will look like in 2035? Our analytical statistics as a country? Our growth in intelligence, international impact and as a nation ourselves? Well this will give it all to you, what you need to know about globalization, changing populations and FNMI trends, Canada's interactions with the physical environment and what causes these impacts on our environment. As well as solutions, predictions and other theoretical ideas of sustainment of our Canadian cities from sprawl.

Changing Populations

Will Canada Be A Desired Destination For Immigration, For Who?

Canada will be a desired destination for immigration because it is one of the most safest countries in the world. This will interest many refugees who are fleeing from war or escaping from a corrupt government. According to the Immigration Point System of Canada that was established in 1978, people under these circumstances (refugees) are permitted into Canada with no further evaluation. So since these people are trying to get to a safe destination where they can be supported and respected, Canada is the ideal option as it is one of the most safest countries in the world. This is why refugees will be attracted to Canada. Canada will also attract business men and women who are trying to start their own company or looking for work. This is because there is a lot of potential for entrepreneurs in downtown Mississauga. The prices for buying plots to have a shop are very low. So you don't need much of an intricate foundation to start off your career. Finally, I believe that Canada will also be a very good option for skilled workers. Primarily this is because this is what Canada is desiring the most, so skilled workers would have a very good chance in getting in. Secondarily, there are a lot of job opportunities in Canada supporting various different fields of operation. In addition to this, Canada has ideal working conditions, where there is no child labour (working over hour limit permitted based on age) and the stationary, devices and accessories that come with your line of work are new, easily accessible and most importantly good quality. An example of this would be if you are a doctor who is coming from a lower class country, you would most likely be interested in the more advanced equipment which would make it easier to save people lives. Canada is also a great option for just regular families as there is free medical care so that cuts off expenses for the whole family and still being able to keep your family healthy. Not just for families, but for everyone, Canada has a great education line and offers numerous different types of specializations and opportunities to try everything out. Education is free for everyone until post secondary education and everyone and anyone can go to school Canada. There is no discrimination.

How Will Canada's Population Look, FNMI Trends?

As of right now, Canada has a very dispersed population. Due to urban sprawl, in the future Canada's population will be much more congested, filled with people and millions of urban centres. There will be very little to no agricultural lands left. Canada will have much more of the same statistics and attributes of a city like New York. Very densely populated (increased amount of people per square kilometre). Canada will be the opposite of how it is now. As for our FNMI population, more and more people are moving out and away from reserves and into urban centres because of the lack of job opportunities and accessibility/availability to resources. I believe by 2035, the native act will have been demolished. As Wab Kinew stated during his interview on the Strombo show, I agree with Wab in believing that anywhere in the world, not just in Canada, if you separate two groups of people within a nation, it will never turn out good. In 20 years, the barriers will have been broken down between Aboriginal and Non Aboriginal peoples and we will be one. No special treatment will be given to either side, equality of this manner will be enforced. With the Aboriginal and Non Aboriginal populations connecting, a very diverse work force will be formed consisting of people with many different skills and specialities.
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Interactions In The Physical Environment

Why Does Canada Have The Climate It Does?

Canada has the climate it does because Canada contains various different climate zones such as continental and maritime regions. There is more rain in maritime in regions and less in continental, this is why we have different seasons in Canada; summer with no rain and winter with rain/hail. Numerous different types of climate zones lead to a diverse climate in Canada that consists of warm, snowy, rainy and humid weather.

Various Different Regions/Vegetation Zones

There are three main types of regions in Canada, as known as a Leaching region, a Calcification region and a Permafrost region. Leaching regions are regions with lots of precipitation. The water from these regions moves down the soil, taking nutrients from the plants and crops. In a Calcification region, there is a very dry climate, and on the contrary to a Leaching region, the water moves upwards because of evaporation and it carries nutrients with it. This creates thick top soil ("O" Horizon) which is rich in minerals. Finally, the last main region of Canada is the Permafrost region. In the Permafrost region there is permanently frozen ground but there is an active layer of one meter that thaws in the summer, while this layer is thawing the surface becomes water logged. Due to these frozen and uncomfortable conditions, as well as short growing seasons means for very little human population present. Some examples of Canada's land form regions are Innuitian Mountains which are located in northern Nunavut. These mountains are covered with rugged ice and they are approximately 2600 meters high. Some natural resources that can be found here are sedimentary rocks and mineral deposits. Secondly, there is the Hudson Bay which is located in northern Ontario, Manitoba. This landform is a very flat plain of peat and muskeg and is sparsely populated with few trees. Thirdly, there are the Interior Plains which are located in Alberta, Saskatchewan and the North West Territories. The interior Plain is based on a very flat plain of sedimentary rock. This land is very fertile and dry, it was also a former sea bed. Some natural resources that can be found here are oil and natural gas deposits. Fourthly, we have the Western Cordillera which is located throughout British Columbia, Alberta and Yukon. These mountains were created by convergent plates, the colliding plates performs an up lift which creates mountains. Fifthly, we have the Canadian Shield which is the largest region, spanning between Ontario, Manitoba, Quebec, the North West Territories and Nunavut. The Canadian Shield is made up of the oldest rocks on Earth which are metamorphic rocks. Natural resources that can be found here mineral deposits. We can also do logging and recreational fishing in the Canadian Shield region. Sixthly, the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands which are located in southern Ontario and Quebec. This is the smallest region and it is the most populated as well. There is very fertile land here and glacial till deposits. The Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands is the transportation and industrial hub of Canada. Lastly, there are the Appalachian Mountains which are located in eastern Canada (maritime regions). The Appalachian Mountains is an old mountain range with rounded hills. This region provides deep harbours for early settlers. A very important natural resource found here are coal deposits. In addition to this there are many recreational activities there. These are some examples of landform regions in Canada.

As for vegetation zones, we will take a look at the soil profile. First off, there are three components of soil, the minerals which are minerals (45%), bacteria and organic materials (5%), moisture (25%) and lastly air (25%). Now we will look at the components of soil in more depth. Starting with the minerals. Parent materials is broken down rock (clay, silt and sand). The weathering causes the rock to break down. The nutrients found in the rock allow plants to grow. Moving on to bacteria and organic materials, bacteria decomposes dead plants and animal matter, thus providing nutrients. While plant and animal matter decay, humus is created which gives the soil its dark and rich color. Thirdly, the air component of the soil. Air is needed by plants and the humus in the soil is what allows the plants to have access to air as humus is soft and loose which allows for many air pockets because of worms and insects that penetrate the soil by creating little holes, thus creating these many air pockets that are needed by the plants to breathe and live. Lastly, we have the moisture of the soil. Water is needed to weather rock down and decay plant matter. In addition to this, water dissolving in this moist layer of the soil transports the nutrients. These are the components of the soil and how the contribute. Now we will look at the soil profile. There are three parts to the soil profile; the three horizons. Primarily, the "O" Horizon (top soil), then secondarily the "B" Horizon (sub soil) and lastly the "C" Horizon (parent material). The "O" Horizon (top soil) is rich in organic materials and minerals, especially near the surface. This layer is a brown or black in colour on the daily. Next up is the "B" Horizon (sub soil), this layer is a combined mineral and organic layer. Sort of comprising of the first two layers in one creating a strong and rich foundation of the soil profile. This layer is a lighter brown in colour.

Types Of Precipitation In Canada

Precipitation can be snow, rain, sleet, freezing rain. All types caused by two occurrences. The first occurrence is when the water is forced upwards into the atmosphere. Then the second occurrence is when air pressure drops and the water vapor condenses. There are three types of precipitation, Convectional, Cyclonic and Relief precipitation. Convectional precipitation needs to be during a hot summer day because the Earth's surface needs to heat up. Convectional precipitation is when air rises and the pressure drops. This causes the air to cool and water to condense. Then cool moist air from near by moves toward warm earth, this increases moisture levels which creates winds. Then once these clouds become heavy with rain, short violent storms occur. This type of precipitation is typical in summer over continental regions. Then there is Cyclonic precipitation, which occurs because of a warm and cold front side of air colliding and the warm air is forced up and cool which causes precipitation. More in depth the dense cold front of air collides with the warm front which forced the warm front upwards. After this, the air condenses and cools. Then this cluster of air (large in size, 1, 000 kilometers long) starts to rotate counter clockwise due to rotation of the Earth. This causes very strong thunderstorms at the cold front's edge. Leading to anvil shaped clouds and long periods of rainy weather. The third and final type of precipitation is Relief precipitation. For Relief precipitation to occur there are two main factors needed; mountains and an onshore breeze. On shore breeze hits a mountain, then air is forced up. Which then leads to air pressure dropping and cooling as the air continues to rise. This eventually causes the water vapor to then condense which causes lots of precipitation on the windward side of the mountain. However, on the contrary, the leeward side of the mountain's air warms as it descends. The leeward side of the mountain has little rain but more like a "rain shadow". It is dry and desert like.

L.O.W.E.R.N And How It Impacts Regions

L.O.W.E.R.N stands for latitude (L), ocean currents (O), wind currents (W), elevation (E), relief (R) and lastly near water bodies (N). L.O.W.E.R.N impacts regions as well to give them the land forms and structure they do. For example, elevation impacts the Western Cordillera because it is made up of a mountain range which adds to the effects of elevation. Another example of L.O.W.E.R.N is in region of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands. This region is affected by two aspects of L.O.W.E.R.N, being near a body of water and the ocean currents affecting climate there. This is because a large body of water such as an ocean acts as a heat sink putting the moderating affect into play. This is when the ocean trap warm weather and releases during cold times and vice versa. Adding on to this, with the ocean currents its naturally more windy and chilly/cold. This is why downtown Toronto is naturally colder than the rest of the city. This is how L.O.W.E.R.N can affect climate, physical features and moderate temperature and windchill.

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Appalachian Mountains

How Will Climate Change Alter Canada's Physical Environment?

Climate change will alter Canada's Physical Environment because of the effects it will have on natural lands. For example, if the climate of a region in which there is rich and fertile soil suddenly stops to getting rain and sunshine and becomes a cold and stale environment then there can no longer be this fertile soil being produced because the climate has altered Canada's physical environment by ruining the soil grounds. We can have this same effect in the opposite way as well. For example, in a permafrost region such as the tundra, if this region suddenly started warming up and having a warm climate instead of the extreme cold which causes permanent frozen grounds to form. The entire region's land will have been altered and melted away because of climate in change in Canada. This is how climate change can alter Canada's physical environment and some examples of some regions that could be affected and the aftermaths.

Managing Canada's Resources and Industries

What Will Be Canada's Most Important Resources?

Canada's most important resource will be oil. I believe it will be oil because oil is used in everything to operate. Oil is used in cars, factories and with KeyStone XL PipeLine. The most important thing to supply here is oil in order to keep the KeyStone XL Pipeline project going. In addition to this, since we are making oil the most easily transportable resource we need to have a lot of it or else the whole Pipeline would be useless and we need to continue extracting oil to give to the United States of America to stay on good terms with our signed agreement with them. Making oil sales to the United States of America is where most of our income from exports come from so we need to keep the oil industry up and running.

How Will Canada Manage These Resources In A Sustainable Manner?

Canada can manage their resources in a sustainable manner by having sustainable development. Sustainable development is meeting the needs of the present without comprising the ability to do so for future generations. So, if we harvest our resources at a slower rate then it takes to recover/replenish then this results in sustainable yield management which allows us to have access to the resources in the future. If Canada does not do this than we will fall into the Tragedy Of The Commons. This is basically the opposite of sustainable development; meeting the needs of the present with little to no concern of the abilities of the future generations. This would mean harvesting resources faster than they are able to recover/replenish. If we do this than this will leave us with little to no resources in the future.

How Is Canada Connected To The Rest Of The World Through Trade And Globalization?

Canada has signed an agreement called the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). This agreement is between the United States of America, Mexico and Canada which allows free trade with no taxes/tariffs and barriers. Canada is connected with the rest of the world using a the measure of their Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in comparison to other nations. GDP is a measure of a nations total value of goods and services annually. We can obtain the GDP of a nation by adding the government expenses, investments and net exports (exports and imports). NAFTA allows Canada to use their competitive advantage to increase their GDP. The GDP shows how well a country is doing as a whole so this is why Canada is considered one of the better countries because our GDP is one of the best. However, this is the incomes of the government of Canada, if we wanted to look at average individual growth then we would calculate the GDP per capita. GDP per capita is an estimate of the average income of citizens of a nation. Canada is also connected to the rest of the world through globalization by businesses, industries, cooperations and factories spreading across the world. For example if we look at McDonald's which was originally in the United States of America, now has over 1, 400 branches in Canada and 35, 000 branches internationally. This is an example of global connections by supporting businesses from other nations and also spreading ours in different nations as well.

Four Sectors Of Activity (Industries)

Canada has four sectors of activity, commonly known as industries. The primary Industry, the secondary industry, the tertiary industry and the Quaternary industry. The primary industry is the first step before a product can be made. The raw materials. This industry extracts the resources. Some examples of the resources that they extract are gold, oil and lumber from the natural environment. The benefits that the primary industry provides Canada with are financial enhancement. The primary industry occupies 3.9% of Canada's labor force. The secondary industry is the part that turn the raw materials from the primary industry into products. It is essentially a construction industry and can range from constructing projects of small homes to a national pipeline construction. This industry is responsible for 18% of Canada's labor force. Moving on, we have the tertiary and Quaternary industry which combined statistically because they comprise of very similar fields of operation. The tertiary industry consists of services that support the society in general. Some examples of jobs that would be included in the tertiary industry are educational jobs, retail activity and governmental jobs. Its counter part, the Quaternary industry, consists of researchers, programmers, doctors and lawyers. Basically benefiting the community and is just an extension of the tertiary industry. These two sectors are in concern of 78.1% of Canada's work force.

Livable Communities

What Issues Are Canadian Cities Facing?

Canadian cities are facing the issue of urban sprawl. Urban sprawl is taking over the cities of Canada, taking over all the lands and industrializing everywhere. Urban sprawl causes transportation issues and overall congestion. With urban sprawl, comes a car dependent culture. With a car depended culture comes more pollution from vehicles which increases carbon emissions as well. A one hour commute in a car every day is equal to nine working years in car, urban sprawl will waste and also be extremely time consuming. In addition to this, people living in sprawling suburbs are six pounds heavier on average. Urban sprawl is cutting into precious and important agricultural lands, leaving us with less green space and natural lands. This also puts our wildlife and their habitats at a major risk, possibly leading to extinction. The main reason for urbanization is that since technology has improved and is still improving, we didn't and don't need as many Canadians working on farms or in primary industries. Since the next sector after what people have exited from is the secondary industry, a manufacturing sector and these were held in the urban centres. The reason why urban sprawl or urbanization leads to such a dramatic increase in population is because most people move to urban centres because of job opportunities, and most of these jobs will be industry jobs. For every industry job, three jobs within the community are made, according to the multiplier affect.

Another issue Canadian cities are facing is pollution from carbon emissions, green house gases and the simplest and most versatile of all automobile pollution. It is the most versatile because its the most common form of pollution and most anticipated/produced form of pollution. We can sustain from pollution by using more eco friendly and healthy means of transportation such as biking, walking, roller blading, skateboarding and many more. And reduce the amount of carbon emissions released from green houses mostly. This contributes to the green house affect of increasing the possibility of global warming. We can use renewable forms of energy instead of oil where it is applicable and reasonable to be used. An example of this could be using solar panels to light up decently sized urban centres or buildings.

Will Urban Sprawl Be An Issue In 2035?

Yes, if it has not reached its maximum level by then. The population will have already grown by 2035 enormously on its own so with the help of urbanization, it will most likely grow at double the rate it would have without. With this great amount of people we will need to expand our living space inevitably, leaving very little to no space to expand. All this congestion just leads to one common reason between all the problems of sprawl being an issue in 2035 and that is lack of space.

How Will Ontario And Other Canadian Cities Limit Sprawl In 2035?

Canadian cities can start taking initiative by trying to save space. A way they can succeed in this is instead of building individual housing units that would take up a lot of residential space very quickly. The solution is to build upwards instead of around. To build vertically, so building and expanding more apartments, building, hotels and motels. This will allow for more people to be able to live while using less space. This combined with just restricting areas from any industrialization to occur there protecting some important lands. This solution has taken place already so all we have to do is follow in its foot steps. Its called the green belt. We need to create an area which can support biking and walking and that recycles. Instead of tearing down old buildings which is environmentally terrible, we can wait until it deteriorates naturally to the point where destruction is the right thing to do if not the best thing to do. Or, we can recover these old buildings and start using them again, a building could also be recycled theoretically speaking. As I stated before, we need a community that can support walking and biking and other means of healthy transportation that is not automized. This can actually happen by using the tactic of zoning and other land use regulations. If these laws are enforced that of which permit walking or biking in some areas only that are short distances then only allow cars and what not when needed during long distance travels, a big difference can be made.

David Suzuki speaks about overpopulation

Ending it off...

Some key findings that this flyer consisted of are FNMI trends and constantly changing populations of Canada, the interactions with the physical environment of Canada, why Canada has the climate it does. Canada's best shot at surviving through urbanization, our most important resources, how we can keep and take care of them and lastly, the main issues of sprawl. What initiatives Canadian cities, including Mississauga can take to be sustainable in 2035.


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