Fallon & Cassidy
Child as little as six years old were able to work for little or no pay. They often worked up to 19 hours with sometimes a one hour break. Not only did they have long hours the working conditions they worked in where horrible. The types of equipment they worked with was often large, heavy, and dangerous causing there to be many accidents in the factories.
The children were treated cruelly and often times even neglected. Children were beaten and verbally abused and owners took in thought into the kids. The younger kids were not old enough to work the machines but they were sent to help the textile workers.
First Revolution in Great Britain late 1700's
Demand for British goods increased and merchants needed cost effective methods of producing the goods. That led to the rise of mechanization and the factory system,
People created most of their own food, clothing, tools, and home accessories. Most of the manufacturing was done at homes or rural shops using simple machines and hand tools
Textile industries were mainly in homes (giving rise to the term cottage industry) with merchants providing the materials and equipment, they picked up the final product. Workers created their own schedules, which was difficult for merchants to regulate and resulted in inefficient work. In the 1700’s there were multiple innovations that led to increased productivity, and required less human energy
Transportation industry went under a transformation during the IR. Before the creation of the steam engine, raw materials and final goods were hauled and handed out by horse drawn carriages and by boats along rivers and canals.
The industrialization marked a change to powered, special machinery, factories, and production by mass. Iron and textile industries and the creation of the steam engine, were the main industry creations during the IR. People saw improved systems of transportation, communication, and banking. The industrialization brought an increase in amounts and variety of products and improved standards of living for some people. It also ended in grim employment and conditions for living for the poor and working classes
Second Revolution in USA and Europe 1870-1914
The map of the US was transformed by unprecedented urbanization and rapid territorial expansion. The changes fueled the 2nd IR in between 1870 and 1914. With the annexation of Texas in 1845 and the British retreat from Oregon country and the Guadalupe-Hidalgo treaty in 1848, cemented mexican cession of the SW to the US. The territorial expansion exponentially rewrote the competing visions free soilers. European immigrants, industrial capitalists, and the Native Americans help for the future of the American Empire. The second IR brought local communities and their products into a large regional agricultural based economy which was helped with by newer labor forces and new production techniques. While the second IR was going on, innovations in transportation, roads, steamboats, the Eerie Canal, and railroads. All of those innovations brought distant and isolated communities together.The aftermath of the Civil War and reconstruction of America, the economy grew as it entered the second IR. The US was AWASH in abundance of natural resources from the new territories, a growing supply of labor immigrating from Europe and the migration of emancipated African Americans, an expanding market for manufactured goods and the availability of capital for investment.
James Watt was the man who patented the steam engine , A steam engine is a device that converts the potential energy that exists as pressure in steam, and converts that to mechanical force.
The main goal of the IR was to have to rely less on human labor in creating goods. Their idea was to transfer industrial steps that were created by men to a form that is created by machines.
The discovery of steam power and the developing of the steam engine happened during this time. The steam engine was one of the most important machines in the IR. It used boiling water to make mechanical motions to be turned into useful work.
In 1775, James Watt created an engine partnership for building engines with a manufacturer named Matthew Boulton. The Boulton-Watt partnership became one of the most important businesses of the IR. They were known for their creative technical ideas and solving problems for much of the British economy and other companies.
By the early 1800’s high pressure steam engines became small enough to move past just factories. They created the first steam-powered locomotive to be put on the railroad in Britain in 1804. The first time in history, products were transported overland by a locomotive, rather than a man or animal. The U.S. was the leader in shipping and they put a passenger steamship on water in 1807. The trip was a 150 mile travel from New York to Albany. The ship was called The Clermont. The trip took 32 hours to complete and it was possibly the reason for starting the boom in railroad traveling.
"Industrial Revolution." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 14 Dec. 2014.
"Steam Power and the Industrial Revolution: 1760-1840." PSC. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Dec. 2014.
"The Industrial Revolution Begins in England (1760-1850)." Untitled Document. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Dec. 2014.
"The Second Industrial Revolution, 1870-1914." US History Scene. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Dec. 2014.
Whipps, Heather. "How the Steam Engine Changed the World." LiveScience. TechMedia Network, 16 June 2008. Web. 14 Dec. 2014.