World War II

The New Order/Holocaust

The New Order

Some areas of Europe were directly annexed by Nazi Germany and made into German provinces. Europe was run by German military or civilian officials with help from people who were collaborating with the Nazis.



Resettlement in the East and Slave Labor in Germany

Heinrich Himmler- the leader of the SS, was put in charge of German resettlement plans in the East. His task was to move Slavic peoples out and replace them with Germans.

Labor shortages led to foreign workers. 14 million workers were forced to labor for the Nazis.


The Holocaust

Racial struggle was a key element in Hitler’s world of ideas. The SS was given responsibility for what the Nazi’s called their Final Solution to the Jewish problem. The Final Solution was genocide (physical extermination) of the Jewish people.



The Einsatzgruppen

Reinhard Heydrich was the head of the SS’s security service and was given the task of administering the final solution. He created special strike forces called the Einsatzgruppen to carry out Nazi plans. The Einsatzgruppen were mobile killing units.



The Death Tolls

  • 5.1–6.0 million Jews, including 3.0–3.5 million Polish Jews

  • 1.8 –1.9 million Gentile Poles (includes all those killed in executions or those that died in prisons, labour, and concentration camps, as well as civilians killed in the 1939 invasion and the 1944 Warsaw Uprising)

  • 200,000–800,000 Roma & Sinti

  • 200,000–300,000 people with disabilities

  • 10,000–25,000 homosexual men

  • 2,000 Jehovah's Witnesses

Poison Gas Canisters

One of the method of killing at these camps was by poison gas (Zyklon B), usually in gas chambers, although many prisoners were killed in mass shootings and by other means. The bodies of those killed were destroyed in crematoria, and the ashes buried or scattered.

Death Camps

1 million jews were killed by the Einsatzgruppen yet the Nazi’s thought that it was too slow of a process. So they decided to create more death camps to kill more jews. The largest camp was Auschwitz. When they got to this camp they were sent to labor camp where they were starved or worked to death. The rest of the inmates went to gas chambers and some were subjected to cruel and painful “medical experiments.”

Death Toll

The Germans killed between 5 and 6 million jews. 90% of jewish population was exterminated. The Holocaust was responsible for the death of nearly 2 out of every 3 european jews. The Nazi’s were also responsible for the death by shooting, starvation, or over work of another 9 to 10 million non-jewish people. The Nazi’s considered the Roma (gypsies) to be an alien race. 40% percent of europe’s 1 million roma were killed in death camps. Some people didn’t believe the accounts of death camps because during WWI allies had exaggerated German plans to arouse enthusiasm for the war. 1.2 million jewish children died in the Holocaust.

Victims

The victims of the Holocaust were Jews, Polish, Russian, Communists, homosexuals, Roma (or gypsies), the mentally ill and the physically disabled, intelligentsia and political activists, Jehovah's Witnesses, some Catholic and Protestant clergy, trade unionists, psychiatric patients, some Africans, and common criminals and people labeled as "enemies of the state". These victims all suffered together in the camps, some documented it by photography and writing about it. The picture below is Nazis in uniform in Vienna, Austria 1938 mocking Jews that are forced to scrub streets.

The New Order In Asia

Japanese war policy in the areas in Asia occupied by Japan was basically defensive. Japan hoped to use its new possessions to meet its growing need for raw materials like tin foil and rubber. To organize these possessions, Japanese leaders included them in the Greater East-Asia Co-prosperity Sphere. This was the economic community supposedly designed to provide neutral benefits to the occupied areas in the home country.

Japanese Policies

The Japanese had conquered southeast Asia.

Economic resources of the colonies were used for the benefit of Japanese war machine. These policies brought severe hardships to the people living the occupied area.

Holocaust documentary
Children of the Holocaust

Essential Questions

1-How did the Holocaust affect people’s outlooks and thoughts about German civilians?

2-What was Hitler’s main strategy to gain control of the Nazi Army?