Chemistry Of Life

Bethany Rodriguez and Na-key Rodriguez

Water and Characteristics

Cohesion is only attracted to water

Adhesion is attracted to other substances.

Both Cohesion and Adhesion are the stickiness that water molecules has for each other. Polarity just means that the molecule has both negative and charged ends. The polarity is responsible for the dissolving of other polar molecules. Water absorbs heat more slowly and holds the energy longer than most substances. Many organsims release more heat through water evaporation. The pH of water is considered neutral because the pH of base is 7 and greater. The acidity is the pH of 7 and lower and water has the pH of 7.

Macromolecules

A molecule that has a very large number of atoms, such as a protein, and nucleic acid. The four types of macromolecules are:

-Carbohydrates

-Protein

-Nucleic Acid

-Lipid

Carbohydrates

The three main types of carbohydrates are:

-Sugar

-Starch

-Fiber

The functions are:

-As a source of energy

-Protein-sparing action

-Essential for fat oxidation

-Role gastro-intestinal function

-Addflavor to the diet

Examples:

Monosaccharides: glucose, fructose, galactose

Disaccharides: sucrose, lactose

Polysaccharides: chitin, cellulose

Proteins

The types of proteins are:

-Hormonal

-Enzymatic

-Structural

-Defensive

-Storage

-Transport

-Receptor

-Contractile

Proteins are involved in mostly all cell functions. Proteins are made up of hundreds or thousands of smaller units called amino acids, which are attached to one another in long chains. There are 20 different types of amino acids that can be combined to make a protein.

Examples:

-Meat

-Poultry

-Fish

-Dairy

-Eggs

-Soup

-Beans

-Nuts



Lipids

Types of Lipids:

-Fatty Acids

-Glycerides

-Complex Lipids

-Nonglycerides

Functions:

-Energy Storage

-Forming the membranes around our cells

-Hormones and Vitamins

Examples:

-Vegetable Oil

-Cholesterol

-Soaps

-Detergents

Nucleic Acids

Types:

• Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

• Ribonucleic acid (RNA)

Functions:

The main function of nucleic acids is to store and transmit genetic material.

Examples:

-Bacterial Chromosomes

-Plasmids

-Mitochondria