Intro to Physical Science

Study Guide By Chase Anderson

IPS Safety Lab Notes

Goggles must be kept over your eyes until Mr.Leeds says to put them away

Report all accidents/spills to Mr.Leeds immediately

Try your best to use common knowledge

Nurse extension: 2828

Safety equipment- fire extinguisher, fire blanket, eye wash/shower

Never taste chemicals

Always waft liquids to detect odors

Never waft solids or powders

Avoid touching chemicals

Always wash hands with soap and water after lab

If chemicals touch skin; flush skin with water for 1 minute and notify Mr.Leeds

Hot glass and cold glass look the same

Never use chipped or broken glass

- tell Mr.Leeds and dispose of broken glass in proper trash

Never use force to remove or insert glass

When using the alcohol burners, roll up sleeves, put up long hair, not just pull back

Never walk away from a lit burner

Never point one end of a test tube/beaker at yourself or someone else

Do not look down into a test tube/beaker while it is being heated

Make sure burner is capped and flame is out when done

At the end of any experiment:

Clean up area and materials completely (or you lose points)

Make certain that burner is out if one was used

Keep goggles on (over eyes) until Mr. Leeds says to put them away

Reaction in a bag notes

When Calcium chloride is mixed with the red liquid (Phenol Red) it becomes hot (exothermic reaction) with an orange color because it is acidic.

  • is used in canned vegetables, electrolytes in sports drinks, and in the flavoring for pickles

When Sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) is mixed with Phenol Red it becomes cold (endothermic reaction) with a light pink color because it is not acidic.

  • is used in baking, cat litter, toothpaste, and laundry detergent

The experimental error in the lab was that there could be a hole in the bag; you wouldn't know if gas was escaping.

Ph scale- measures how acidic a substance is. It is a scale that ranges from 0 to 14. Below 7 turns yellow in Phenol red and above 8 turns pink.

  • 0= acid
  • 7=neutral
  • 14= alkaline

Heating Baking Soda

The purpose of the heating baking soda lab was to observe and record the reaction that occurs when baking soda is heated. During the lab we heated test tubes of baking soda connected to an inverted bottle filled with water. There was no change to the baking soda but gases were emitting from the baking soda and pushing the water out of the bottle. Condensation collected at the top of the beaker. Later we took the heated beaker and filled both test tubes with baking soda. We then added tea, it was clear in the non-heated beaker because the substance stuck together at the bottom of the test tube. The tea in the heated beaker was cloudy because the substance within it stayed granulated. I've come to the conclusion that both substances are different and react with heat. I have come to this conclusion because during the lab I observed that one substance was a powder while the other clumped together and was hard to break up.

The experimental error was that there could be a hole in the tubing or that if someone didn't clean the stirring rod before your class then it could contaminate your results.

Blue dot question answers for Heating Baking Soda Lab

1. There was no change at the bottom of the test tube only baking soda.

2. Condensation and gas bubbles were at the top of the test tube.\

3. Water is being pushed out of the bottle (within the apparatus) by the gas.

4. The gas came from the baking soda.

5. The droplets at the top of the test tube is the hot gas touching the cooler surface of the test tube. (gas turns back into a liquid)

6. Saw a difference in color with the heated test tube .

7. No they are not the same because the heated test tube is a different color than the unheated test tube (that you know is baking soda)

1. Baking soda releases gas when heated which helps dough rise

Additional notes

control group- was the unheated test tube

experimental group was the heated test tube

indicator- was the tea (showed you that the heated test tube was not baking soda)

variable- something you want to measure

independent variable- cause + change in dependent variable (temperature [heat])

dependent variable- color of the tea

Control factors- same type of tea/ same amount of baking soda

  • same amount of tea
  • same stirring time
  • same size test tube

Volume notes

Unit of measurement- cm3 (cubic centimeters)

Volume= length X width X height

Standard unit of measure= meter (m)

1 centimeter is equal to 0.01m (100 centimeters equals one meter)

Unit cube- a small cube 1cm on each edge

Volume of liquids

use a graduated cylinder to measure volumes

Always check the intervals or scale

Units= milliliters (mL) or cm3

1ml = 1cm3

-Read form bottom of the meniscus

Single Pan balance notes

1. Check that the pan is clean and dry

2. Always "zero" balance before each massing

3. Never switch pans

4. Pick up balance by red bar only

5. Don not zero balance when done

Box questions

3. 50cm3

4. A has a bigger width

5. 7cm3 is the weight of the stone

6. a. 8 cubes will be needed

b. 27 cubes will be needed

c. 125cm3

7. The second rectangular box

8. The cone has a smaller volume below 10 so ten has to put where it has the same volume as the other measurements.

9. a. I= 1.3cm II= 3.7cm no you can only round one number further than told

b. III= 1.65cm IV= 2.51cm V= 4.50cm no

c. It gives a more accurate estimate

10. A= 0.1cm3 B= 0.2cm3

11. A= 4cm3 B= 1.30cm3

12. 12cm- 11.5cm- 12.4cm

12.0cm- 11.95cm- 12.04cm

12.00cm- 11.995cm- 12.004cm

13. Lines are further apart because less surface area more depth is easier to read

Lab 1.4

Experimental errors-

- sand sticks to the sides of wet cylinder

- pour water into sand

1.6 mass notes

Beqa - ancient standard of mass used in Egypt

- Earliest balance found in Egypt (approx. 7,000 years old)

Mass = standard unit grams

1 kilogram= 1,000 grams

1 kilogram= 2.2 pounds

1.8 sensitivity of a balance lab

Mass pf single square= Mass of 20x20 divided by 400

groups need to be between 0.003 and 0.007

Penny notes

Before 1982- 95% copper 5% zinc

After 1982- 2.5% copper 97.5% zinc

1943- made out of steel because copper was needed for shell casings

2.1 Mass of dissolved salt

Experimental errors

- not drying off the cap = water in Mi not there in Mf

- remove cap before Mf = spillage leakage

- cap not on tightly= spillage

- not shaking long enough = not dissolved

- spill salt when pouring into cup

The Ice, Ice baby lab

Condensation on bottle: Comes from warm water vapor in the air (humidity) when it touches the cool surface of the bottle it turns from a gas to a liquid.

Experimental errors

- Not wiping off condensation= gain mass

- Cap not sealed = loss mass

- Ice not fully melted = ???

- Bottle is wet during Mi = loss mass

- Shaking bottle = loss mass

Pre lab 2.5

Melting point of copper 2,000 degrees F

Melting point of sulfur 235 degrees F

yellow smoke- water in sulfur turns into vapor and rises in the test tube

Experimental errors

- Sulfur sticks to sides of test tube (doesn't react)

- hole in the rubber sheet- gas escapes

-sheet is not on test tube tightly

-clean pan between Mi and Mf

2.6 Mass of a gas

mf - mass after = mass of the gas

experimental errors

- touch tablet after Mi- lose mass

-cap is wet during Mi- lose mass

-water in pan during Mi- lose mass

-cap not on tight- lose mass

Alka-Seltzer: Antacid and pain reliever

- Aspirin, citric acid, and sodium bicarbonate

Closed system- space where nothing can enter or leave

Law of conservation of mass- in a closed system mass will remain constant, regardless of the actions of the processes inside the closed system

Chapter 3

Characteristic properties-

- property of an object- does not tell you what it is made out of

- property of a substance- this helps you identify what the object is made out of


the greater the mass the greater the density = M/V = D

Experimental errors

- measure the same side twice

- water splashes out of graduated cylinder

- Find volume of rock first - mass will increase and density will also increase

- paint chips off object - decrease in mass


Experimental errors

- not rinsing out the cylinder between substances

- cylinder not re massed empty

- outside of cylinder is wet

- Substance A- magnesium sulfate or Epsom Salt

-Substance B- water

Test 1

how to find the volumes for the sand chart

V. of sand alone= v. of sand + water - v. of water

V. of water= v. of sand + water - v. of sand alone

V. of air= v. of dry sand - v. of sand alone

% of sand that is air= air divided by dry sand

how to sensitivity of the balance

#10 mass divided by initial mass= ∆M

∆M divided by number of yes's

Sensitivity of the balance is between 0,02 and 0.01

test 2

Mass of a gas error- the cap was not screwed on tight enough

Mass of Copper and sulfur lab- if there was a hole in the rubber sheet

Ice and water lab error- condensation formed on the outside of the bottle because the cap was not out on the bottle right away