The Gilded Age

By: Kaija Kinnunen

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Andrew Carnegie

Who: Andrew Carnegie was born on November 25 1835 in Dunfermline Scotland. He grew up very poor but then turned into a very successful Scottish American industrialist. Andrew ran a humungous, successful steel business that sold all over the world. He also donated to many charities for education and peace. Andrew retired in 1901 when he was 66 years old. He died in 1919 when he was 84 years old in Lenox Massachusetts. He died of bronchial phneumonia.


What: Andrew was an industrialist who was in a steel making business. He created "Carnegie Steel Company" and sold it to J.P. Morgan for $480 million.


When: Andrew and his parents emigrated to Pittsburg Pennsylvania in 1848. In 1860 he started to invest in railroads, railroad sleeping cars, oil derricks, and bridges.

Where: Andrew Carnegie and his family immigrated from Dunfermline Scotland when Andrew was 13 (1848) into Pittsburg Pennsylvania. From then on he started his "rags to riches" journey. He on August 11, 1919 when he was 84.



Why: There is nothing that really states why he wanted to be a very successful philanthropist / industrialist. But who doesn't want to be that? I think that he really wanted to give back and help the education process and that's why he donated so much money for peace and education.

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Henry Bessemer

Who: Henry Bessemer was born January 19, 1813 in Charlton, Hertfordshire England. Henry was the first person to develop a mass-producing steel process inexpensively. When he was 17 years old he invented the creation of embossed stamps to use on title deeds. Henry died on March 14, 1898 in London.



What: Henry Bessemer was famous for inventing an inexpensive mass-producing steel process. That was quite helpful during the "Gilded Age" because everyone was trying to improve the economy and to start growing the country. Manufacturing steel was a huge part in this time period because it was the start of making a railroad across the country.



When: In 1854 when Henry was 41 years old he created an artillery shell. Napoleon was very interested but needed some contraption that could make a mass of steel in a matter of minutes for all of the shells he needed. That is when Henry invented the " Bessemer Converter".



Where: Henry was born and lived in Charlton, Hertfordshire England so people assume that is where the " Bessemer Converter" was created but nobody really knows where. He met with Napoleon in Paris so it could've been made anywhere from Paris to Hertfordshire.



Why: Henry wanted his artillery shell for the Army to be successful so he started to think about how he was going to do that. Soon enough he came up with the " Bessemer Converter".

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Samuel Gompers

Who: Samuel Gompers was born on January 27, 1850 in London United Kingdom. He immigrated into the United States when he was only 10 years old. He worked in The cigar business with his father when they got to the US. In 1886 he was elected president of the American Federation if Labor. He was president until the day he died, December 13, 1924.



What: Samuel Gompers was a young cigar worker with his father. Later on in his life he was a president of the American Federation of Labor until December 13, 1924.



When: Samuel Gompers was a cigar maker from 13 years old and on. He was finally elected president of the American Federation of Labor in 1886, he was the first and longest serving president ever in the federation.



Where: Samuel immigrated to New York City, New York and started to roll cigars there. It didn't really say where the federation was but I would think it was in New York.



Why: I think that Samuel Gompers did it so he could give back because he was a good person and he would want to give back to the community. Also it was a singular achievement.

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Native Americans During the Gilded Age

Who: The Native Americans were actually a big part of the Gilded Age. If they weren't pushed all the way to the west coast the US would be absolutely different. The Native Americans all 250,000 of them were pushed so far west they were forced to move to reservations.



What: The Native Americans were happily living all over the US, but the "white people" were building their railroads which caused the Native Americans to be pushed so far off the states they had to move to reservations. I don't think the Native Americans were very happy about this because they had to move off their land and move where the "white people" put them.



When: This happen more during the "Gilded Age" which was around the late 1900's. To be more precise it was 1870's mostly. "Gilded Age" meant that it looked good on the outside but wasn't really good on the inside. Kind of how the US was getting railroads but the Native Americans had to be moved.



Where: The Native Americans lived all over the country but once the railroad was being built they got moved, a lot. A lot is probably all the way over the country because they were moved all the way to the west coast.



Why: The Native Americans didn't really have any power over all of the new "white people" because they out-numbered them by way too many. Almost everyone in the country agreed to the new railroad except the Native Americans because they would have to be moved. The Native Americans didn't really win that battle so now we have a bigger country because of that railroad but the Native Americans still don't have their freedom because they still are living on our reserves that we built for them.