Types of Mining

BY Natalie Fusaro and Airika Gales


Where soil and rock overlies the mineral deposit.

  • Strip Mining - to excavate by open cut methods.
  • Open Pit Mining - a type of surface mining where usually metallic minerals are removed.
  • Mountain Top Removal - Any method or surface coal mining that destroys a mountain top or ridge line.

Effects on the environment: Increased erosion, habitat destruction, air pollution.


The extraction of minerals from underground.

  • Slope - a method of accessing valuable geological material. Ex. coal, ore.
  • Drift - cutting and opening horizontally into the side of mountains allowing us to get to a mineral stream.
  • Shaft - A method of excavating a vertical or near vertical tunnel from the top down.

Effects on the environment: Can disrupt landscape underground, air pollution, can harm or kill mine workers, strips land of vegetation, soil and rocks, rainfall leaks toxic chemicals into the earth.

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Strip Mining/ Open Pit

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Mountain Top Removal

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Slope Mining

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Drift Mining

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Shaft Mining


A process of putting liquid into rocks at high pressure.

Effects on the environment: Puts chemicals in the ground, water pollution, air pollution near fracking sites from oil and gases, strains water sources from mass amounts being used, destroys streams and landscapes.

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