APA Formatting & Style Guide - 6th

A Publication of the Trocaire College Libraries

What's on this Guide?

  • Formatting
  • Abstract
  • In-Text Citations
  • In-Text Citations: General Rules for Quoting, Paraphrasing and Summarizing
  • In-Text Citations: More General Rules
  • In-Text Citations: Source Types
  • Reference Page
  • Reference Page: Source Types
  • APA Checklist


The library also has a printed version of this guide with information on planning an outline, plagiarism along with examples. Pick up a copy today!

APA Paper Formatting

Check out our template at our Citation Help page. Or you may set up the format yourself.


IMPORTANT: Set up your paper before you begin typing it!


  • 8.5x 11 in. paper
  • 1 in. margins all around
  • 12 pt. Times New Roman font
  • The paper is to be double spaced
  • All pages are numbered
  • The Running head is necessary on all pages of your paper
  • On the cover sheet, the words Running head precede a brief version of the paper title written in all caps.
  • Running head: BRIEF VERSION OF THE TITLE
  • On the remaining pages of the paper, the all caps brief version of the title just appears without Running head before it
  • The body of the paper begins with the complete title centered at the top of the page

  • The paragraphs are indented throughout the paper (use tab key)

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Abstract

  • You may be asked to include an abstract in your assignment. If you are doing a literature review, or your instructor does not require one, you can move to the next section.


  • An abstract of your paper appears on page 2. This is a summary of your entire paper. This should include an overview of your topic, the research you conducted and the overall findings you had. The abstract is a paragraph long and contains 150 – 250 words.


  • Keywords are found at the bottom. They are indented (use tab key) and separated by commas. Think of them as the words people would use to search for your article in a database.

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In-Text Citations

  • What is an In-Text Citation? It is a reference to a source that you used to either quote, paraphrase or summarize. The citation will lead the reader to more complete information on the Reference Page.


  • If it is not your original idea or experience, you will need to cite it. Citing means that you give credit to the originator of the idea- “give credit where credit is due”. You do not need to cite common knowledge.


  • Citing others’ information strengthens your paper by showing that you are not just copying, but adding to the conversation and making a contribution!


  • In-text citations are inserted into the body of your paper at the point where you introduce the information.


  • An in-text citation consists of an author or title, year if known and page number(s) or other markers if stated. According to APA guidelines page numbers or other markers are not required when paraphrasing or summarizing but encouraged.


  • Indirect in-text citations: These are citations when you want to refer to an idea of an author that was published in another author’s text, but you did not read the original work. For example: on page 192 in Smith’s book (which you read) she mentions Miller’s idea. If you want to refer to Miller’s idea do the following:


  1. Quote: “Miller’s quote” (as quoted in Smith, 2016, p. 192).
  2. Paraphrase or Summary: Miller’s idea (as cited in Smith, 2016, p. 192).
  3. On your Reference Page, you will only cite the Smith work.


  • See Purdue OWL’s APA Guide for additional in-text citation information.

In-Text Citations: General Rules for Quoting, Paraphrasing and Summarizing

You can express other people’s ideas in a few different ways: you can quote them, paraphrase their thoughts or summarize their ideas with proper citing.


Quotations– Use them sparingly. Usually you will need to use EXACT (word for word) quotes to:


  1. Define a term or idea
  2. Use a phrase or expression produced by the author
  3. Inform your reader of information that may be difficult to paraphrase, e.g. a theory or medical fact
  4. Illustrate that the quote is just so important or powerful, you couldn’t do it justice


Remember that carefully selected quotes can support your argument, but will not add to the quality of your own work.


Short Quotations:

Quotation marks are mandatory for quotes shorter than 40 words long.


Format: author(s), year and page


There are 2 methods to quote: Author(s) mentioned in citation or Author(s) mentioned in the sentence.


Examples:

  1. “To some New York is just a city, to a New Yorker it is paradise on Earth” (Collins & Dawin, 2012, p. 11).
  2. As Collins and Dawin (2012) state “To some New York is just a city, to a New Yorker it is paradise on Earth” (p. 11).


Long Quotations:

Long quotations are ones that are more than 40 words long. There are rules for formatting and citing.


  1. The whole quotation is indented .5 inch from the rest of the text and is in block formatting.
  2. Spacing is the same as the rest of the paper, double-spaced.
  3. There are no quotation marks around the quote.
  4. The period at the end of the quote comes before the in-text citation.


Example:

Jones' 1993 study found the following:

  • The "placebo effect," which had been verified in previous studies, disappeared when behaviors were studies in this manner. Furthermore, the behaviors were never exhibited again, even when real drugs were administered. Earlier studies were clearly premature in attributing the results to a placebo effect. (pp. 199-200)

** Note the pp. This is to denote multiple pages.



Paraphrasing– A detailed restatement of information in your own words from a source. To paraphrase effectively you need to read the information until you understand the full meaning. Then set the original source aside, think and write, IN YOUR OWN WORDS, what you just read. Make sure your version reflects the meaning of the original. Simply changing a few words, but keeping the same original structure is considered plagiarism. You must truly put the information into your own words!


Summarizing– This is putting only the MAIN IDEAS into your own words. It usually is very short and not as involved as paraphrasing.


Paraphrasing or Summarizing:

Keep the idea of the original thought, but phrase it in a new way.


Format: author(s) and year


IMPORTANT: Page numbers (or other markers) are not required when paraphrasing or summarizing, but APA guidelines encourage it. Some instructors require it, ask your instructor.


There are 2 methods to paraphrasing or summarizing: Author(s) mentioned in citation or Author(s) mentioned in the sentence.


Examples:

1. The remix culture is not a new development (Anderson, 2014, p.76).

2. Edwards, Tabb and Mix (2007) believed that the freedom to do what you love is not common for most people (p.237).

In-Text Citations: More General Rules

Multiple authors:

Use method #1 or #2 for quoting, paraphrasing or summarizing.


If using #1 and it is the first time you mention the source:

2 authors: (Collins & Dawin, 2012, p. 11).

3-5 authors: (Chase, Reynolds, Hill, Black &

Schultz, 2017, p. 298).

6+ authors: (Seymour et al., 2015, p. 22).


If using #1 and it is the second and following times:

2 authors: Same as the example above

3-5 authors: (Chase et al., 2017, p. 298).

6+ authors: Same as the example above


If using #2 and it is the first time you mention the source:

2 authors: Collins and Dawin (2012)…. (p. 11).

3-5 authors: Chase, Reynolds, Hill, Black and Schutlz (2017) state ….. (p. 298).

6+ authors: Seymour et al. (2015)…… (p. 22).


If using #2 and it is the second time and following times:

2 authors: Same as the example above

3-5 authors: Chase et al. (2017) state …. (p.298).

6+ authors: Same as the example above


No author:

Use method #1 or #2 for quoting, paraphrasing or summarizing.

  • Title is italicized if it is italicized on the Reference Page.
  • Title is in “quotes” if it is an article or other document (i.e. webpage). Capitalize the first letter of the title.
  • If the title is long, title should be shortened.


No page numbers:

Use method #1 or #2 for quoting, paraphrasing or summarizing.


Use markers that are available to help the reader find the information.

  • If paragraphs are numbered, use “para.” and the number.
  • If no paragraph #, use headings/section.
  • If it’s a table/figure, use that.
  • If none of the above appear in the source, use author and year.


Examples:

  1. (Klein, 2018, para. 7) or Klein (2018) states…. (para. 7)
  2. (Klein, 2018, Methodology Section) or
  3. Klein (2018) states …. (Methodology Section)
  4. (Klein, 2018, Table 1 or Figure C) or
  5. Klein (2018) states… (Table 1 or Figure C)
  6. (Klein, 2018) or Klein (2018) states … .


No date:

Use method #1 or #2 for quoting, paraphrasing or summarizing.

  • Use n.d. to indicate “no date”.


Examples:

  1. (Smith, n.d., p. 227)
  2. Smith (n.d.) argues... (p. 227)

In-Text Citations: Source Types

Books

Follow the general rules that apply.


eBooks

Follow the general rules that apply.


Journal Article, Magazine, Newspaper (database/online)

Follow the general rules that apply.


Images

Follow the general rules that apply. The artist or creator is the author of the image.


Websites & Webpages

Remember a webpage is a section of the whole website.


Follow the general rules that apply. Author information can sometimes be found under “About” section of a website. The date is the creation or update of the website or webpage, usually found near the bottom of page.


DVD or Streaming Video (college database)

Follow the general rules that apply. The author is the producer and director and "page" is the time the quote, paraphrasing or summarizing appears.


Examples:

  1. “She inspired catwoman” (Haggiag & Dean, 2017, 1:14).
  2. According to Haggiag and Dean (2017) Hedy Lamarr was the inspiration for the Batman comic character, Catwoman (1:14).


YouTube or other video found on the Internet

Follow the general rules that apply. The author can be a screen name and "page" is the time quote, paraphrasing or summarizing appears.


Examples:

  1. “As a leader, you have to be listening” (Buxman, 2013, 2:07).
  2. According to Karyn Buxam (2013) a good leader has the ability to really listen to others. (2:07).


PowerPoint or Lecture Notes* online

*Lecture notes are documents from a lecture, either handed out in class or on Moodle, not your personal notes.

Follow the general rules that apply. The author is usually an instructor "page" is the slide number for PowerPoint or page number for notes.


Examples:

  1. “Why did the chicken cross the road?” (Smith, 2014, slide 10).
  2. Smith (2014) illustrated that some fowl are able to determine if they could navigate road crossing (slide 22).


Other Sources

Always ask a librarian for assistance if you have other types of sources that are not described in this guide.


PLEASE NOTE: When paraphrasing or summarizing sources that traditionally do not have page numbers, APA guidelines encourage that there is some reference to where the readers of your paper can find the information that you are referencing. Therefore using times, slides, paragraph numbers, sections, tables, etc. enables the reader to find that information. Ask your instructor if this required.

References Page


HINT: Items that were included in an in-text citation will be listed on your Reference Page.


  • The word “References” (without quotes) is placed on the top of the page and centered.


  • The second and subsequent lines of each citation are indented (hanging indent).


  • List all of your citations alphabetically by either the author’s last name or the title depending on which is listed first in your reference. Disregard articles (A, An, The) at the beginning of titles. Use the next significant word. For example: The grapes of wrath (book title) would come after a book authored by Jim Ferguson since G comes after F.


  • Authors are listed by Last name, Initials. (if listed).


  • Two authors have "&" between their names


  • All authors, up to 7, must be listed in your citation. List the first 6 followed by "&" and the last author.


  • If 8 or more authors, list the first 6 followed by 3 ellipsis points … then the final author.


  • Write out the full titles of the sources.


  • For books: capitalize the first letter of the first word in the title, use lowercase for the rest of the title. The title is in italics.


  • For books: If the title has a subtitle, the first letter of the first word in the subtitle is capitalized.


  • For books: Capitalize any proper nouns.


  • For periodical titles (journals, magazines and newspapers): use the title as it appears, with capitalization and lowercase. The title is in italics.


  • For article titles: same rule as books.


  • Complete URLs for websites and journal articles accessed online must be listed. Include http:// or https://


  • If the site, usually a database, provides a DOI use that instead of a URL.


  • Date format: For some sources the format is Year, Month (spelled out) Day. Some sources only state year.


  • Databases: Most databases have a “Cite” option that can guide you to referencing the source correctly. You can copy and paste the reference into a document. You will need this information when you compose your Reference Page. But it is your job to make sure that the citation is correct.

The hanging indent will not appear in any of these examples due to webpage formatting.

Reference Page: Source Types

BOOKS:


Format:

Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title (italicized). City of Publication, State Abbreviation: Publishing company.


  • For publishers outside of the United States use city of publication followed by the country.
  • If the book has editors, name(s) are followed by (Ed.). or (Eds.).
  • If the book is an edition other than the first, include the edition number after the book title (edition). (2nd ed. or Rev. ed.)
  • If it is a chapter in a book, use “In” and page number


Examples:

American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.


Atwood, M. (1998). The handmaid’s tale. New York, NY: Anchor Books.


Deery, R., Denny, E., & Letherby, G. (2015). Sociology for midwives. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Polity Press.


Meiland, J. (2003). The difference between high school and college. In R. K. Durst (Ed.), You are here: Readings on higher education for college writers (pp. 104-114). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.


Smith, J. D., Jones, R. L., & Harper, S. G. (Eds.). (2012). Psychology of the mind. Boston, MA: ABC Books.

eBOOKS (college database):


Format:

Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title (italicized). Retrieved from complete URL of eBooks site


  • If it is a chapter in a book, use “In” and page number


Examples:

Boulton, C. (2013). Encyclopaedia of brewing. Retrieved from http://ny3r.eblib.com.ezproxy.trocaire.edu:2048/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=1204057


Tolley, K.A. & Herrel, A. (2013). The biology of chameleons. Retrieved from http://www.eblib.com


Chapter in book:

Rowson, B. (2017). Marketing for the hospitality industry. In M.N. Chibili (Ed.), Modern Hotel Operations Management. (pp. 269-298). Retrieved from https://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?vid=5&sid=addd75d9-7983-417d-9766-3aed0c6d180e%40sessionmgr120&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#AN=1353735&db=nlebkn

JOURNAL, MAGAZINE AND NEWSPAPER ARTICLES (database/online):


Format: Journal article from a database:

Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of article in database. Journal Title (italicized) , Volume (italicized) (Issue, if stated), pages. DOI or Retrieved from complete URL of database


Example:

Schwartz, A. (2015). In search of after. Cambridge Opera Journal, 27(3), 289-299. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954586715000129


Format: Magazine or Newspaper article from online source:

Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Title of magazine article or newspaper article. Magazine or Newspaper Title (italicized) , pages. Retrieved from complete URL of magazine or newspaper


Example:

Quenqua, D. (2018, October 30). Deer antlers couldn’t grow so fast without these genes. New York Times, 25. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

JOURNAL, MAGAZINE AND NEWSPAPER ARTICLES (print):


Format: Journal article from a database:

Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of article. Journal Title (italicized), Volume (italicized) (Issue, if stated), pages. doi (if assigned to the article).


Examples:

Lund, J. R. (2011). Best practices from a library cat. The Bottom Line, 24(1), 49-50. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/08880451111142060


Salmon, J., Timperio, A., Chu, B., & Veitch, J. (2010). Dog ownership, dog walking, and children's and parents' physical activity. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 81(3), 264-271.


Walker, M. (2018). When are sales too good to be true?. CR: Consumer Reports, 83(12), 41-45.


Format: Magazine or Newspaper:

Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Title of magazine article or newspaper article. Magazine or Newspaper Title (italicized) , pages. doi if listed


Example:

Pignataro, T.J. (2018, November 11). First lake-effect snows could come this weekend. Buffalo News, C1.

IMAGES


It is important to give as much information as possible about the image you used. Some websites do give citations and the library’s image database, ImageQuest, gives citation information.


Format:

Artist’s Last Name, Initials. (Year). Title of the image. [format]. Retrieved from URL


If no author:

Title of the image. [format]. (Year). Retrieved from URL


Examples:

Website:

Lange, D. (1936). Toll of uncertainty: Destitute pea pick-ers in California. Mother of seven children. [JPEG image]. Retrieved from http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/lange/dor12- 100.jpg


Library database:

Mata Hari. [Photograph]. Retrieved from Encyclopædia Britannica ImageQuest. https://quest.eb.com/search/115_2732389/1/115_2732389/cite

WEBSITES and WEBPAGES (section of a website):


Format: Website

Author’s Last Name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Title of website (italicized). Retrieved from complete URL of website


If no author:

Title of website (Year, Month, Day). Retrieved from...


Example:

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2017, August 4) Chickenpox. Retrieved from

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chickenpox/symptoms-causes/syc-20351282


Format: Webpage

Title of page within website. (Year, Month Day). Title of website (italicized). Retrieved from complete URL of website with webpage you are using


Example:

Ebola Vaccines. (2016, February, 26). NIAID. Retrieved from https://www.niaid.nih.gov/diseases-conditions/ebola-vaccines

DVDs:


Format:

Executive Producer’s Last Name, Initials. (Producer), & Director’s Last Name, Initials. (Director). (Year of release). Title of movie (italicized) [DVD]. Country of origin: Production Studio.


Examples:

Dey, D. (Producer), & Cianfrance, D. (Director). (2010). Blue valentine [DVD]. United States: Weinstein Company.


Injoy Videos (Producer). (2008). Positions for labor [DVD]. United States: Injoy Videos.

STREAMING VIDEOS (college databases):


Format:

Producer's Last Name, Initials. (Producer), & Director's Last Name, Initials. (Director). (Year). Title of video (italicized) [Medium of publication- Video file, Motion picture, Educational film]. Country of origin: Production Studio. Retrieved from complete URL of website with webpage you are using


Example:

Shenson, W. (Producer) & Lester, R. (Director). (1964). A Hard Day's Night [Video file]. United Kingdom: United Artists. Retrieved from http://kanopystreaming.com

YOUTUBE:


Format:

Author’s Last Name, Initials. [screen name, if known]. (Year, Month Day uploaded). Title of video (italicized) [Video File]. Retrieved from complete URL of the specific video


Example:

Project Information Literacy. [Project InfoLit]. (2013, November 13). The Freshman Studies [Video File]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/BWNGZUa952A

POWERPOINT or LECTURE NOTES (online or handouts):


  • Lecture notes are documents from a lecture, either handed out in class or on Moodle, not your personal notes.


Format:

Author’s Last Name, Initials. (year, month day). Title of presentation (italicized) [PowerPoint slides or lecture notes]. Retrieved from complete URL for PowerPoint


Examples:

From the Internet:

Oakleaf, M.J. (2012, June). A multi-institution study of rubric assessment: lessons lived & learned [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://meganoakleaf.info/railsaalhe2012.pdf


From Moodle:

Baker, S. (2016, October). Wound care [lecture notes]. Retrieved from Trocaire College Nursing 101 Moodle http://mrooms.net


Lecture notes (handouts):

Smith, R. (2016, October 25). Philosophy of the ancient world [lecture notes].

OTHER SOURCES:


Always ask a librarian for assistance if you have other types of sources that are not described in this guide. Or check out Purdue OWL's APA Guide.


APA Checklist

When you are all done with the final draft, follow the steps below BEFORE you SAVE and submit (in print or digitally) your paper to your instructor.


Assignment


  • Did you cite and reference the types and number of sources that are stated in the assignment?
  • Did you follow any special instructions requested from the instructor?



Paper Presentation


  • Did you follow all the steps regarding the paper formatting?



Citations and References


  • Did you properly cite all the quotes, paraphrases and summaries within the paper?
  • Did you reference all the sources that are mentioned in the text of the paper on the Reference Page?



Proofread your paper. Or better, let someone else read it for grammatical mistakes, typos, sentence structure and overall readability. The reader can let you know if you have been successful in making your argument, supporting it, and illustrating it through citing sources and then drawing a conclusion.

Cindy Seitz, MLS Spring 2019 (APA 6th edition)