INJURIES IN SPORT

INJURIES: CASUSES/SYMPTONS/TREATMENT

CAUSES OF INJURIES...

Sports injuries" are injuries that happen when playing sports or exercising. Some are from accidents. Others can result from poor training practices or improper gear. Some people get injured when they are not in proper condition. Not warming up or stretching enough before you play or exercise can also lead to injuries. The most common sports injuries are:

  • Sprains and strains
  • Factures
  • Dislocations
  • Graize
  • Bruise
  • Concussion
  • Spinal Injuries
  • Blisters

however some injuries can be caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors. An inrinsic injury is an injury in which it is caused by your own physical doing, which means it is primarily your own fault, this can be caused by not doing a certain exercise properly or your strength (having muscle imbalance so being to weak). in addition this can also involve leg length differences, your posture, foot shape and movement during exercise, and others. a very good example of this is in weight training whre you lifting a very heavy weight that you cannot lift so youve caused yourself to pull or strain a muscle or even tear it.


An extrinsic injury is an injury in which it has happened by your environment or because of wrong equipment or becasue of somone else causing that injury, so it is an injury which isnt our fault. a very good example of this is in football and rugby as a player has done a dity tackle in a challeng causing an injury.


(the picture on my right shows an extrinsic injury as the player in red has casued a very bad tackle and casyed the player in white's injury)

Different Injuries and the causes....

The most common sports injuries are:

  • Sprains and strains
  • Fractures
  • Dislocations
  • Concussion

. Strain- A force tending to pull or stretch something to an extreme or damaging degree. the symptons of this injury is pain or tenderness in your muscles or joints, stiffness, throbbing, tingling or numbness, weakness, cramp. The way to treat this is by possibly taking pain killers, or having a heat or cold pack, or even just relaxing the injured and strained muscle. If this is not treated it could continue to swelling or having the pain for a long period of time.

. Sprain- Wrench or twist the ligaments of (an ankle, wrist, or other joint) violently. this can be casued by over-reach, change direction suddenly, slow down or accelerate suddenly, fall and land awkwardly, collide with an object. the symptons of this injury involve, pain around the affected joint, being unable to use the joint normally or being unable to put weight on it, bruising, tenderness, swelling. The well known treatment for this injury is the PRICE therapy which is Protection, Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation. Protection – protect the injured area from further injury, by using a support

Rest – stop the activity that caused the injury, and rest the injured joint or muscle

Ice – for the first 48 to 72 hours after the injury, apply ice wrapped in a damp towel to the injured area for 15 to 20 minutes every two to three hours during the day.

Compression – compress or bandage the injured area to limit any swelling and movement that could damage it further

Elevation – keep the injured area raised and supported on a pillow to help reduce swelling. If your leg is injured, avoid having long periods of time where your leg is not raised.

Fractures- a fracture is a break in the bone tissue. there are open and closed fractures.

. An open fracture- An open fracture is a broken bone that penetrates the skin. Caused by pressure or an impact, the alignment, or suddenly changing direction can cause this injury. a very common example would be in football as a player has come in with a very powerful tackle and caused the bone to break and come through the skin as it had great impact. to treat this injury you must first conrol the bleeding before treatment, then rinse and dress the wound so that it is clean and there is no infection. Then bandage or cover the wound so that the air is trapped and no bacteria infects the wound.

. A closed fracture- a crack or a break in a bone. Caused by pressure or an impact, the alignment, or suddenly changing direction can cause this injury. A useful example for this injury would be in Muay Thai (Thai Boxing) where two fighters have collided shins and casued the shin bone (Fibia) to crack. A very good xample would be a Kimura in Mixed Martial Arts a very good submission where if the opponent does not tap out it will cause the arm and elbow to break. (sometimes could also cause an open fracture). The treatment for this injury is dependent on the actual circumstances on how the big or severe the crack in the bone is. Hairline fractures may only require immobilization and rest in order to heal, while more severe injuries to the bone may still require a surgery to repair. However a cast is often used to treat a closed fracture.

Dislocation- a dislocation is when two bones are misplaced and pushed out of there socketing. It is caused by trauma to the joint or where an individual falls on a specific joint. A good xample in this would be in basketball when a player has changed direction quickly and caused there knee to pop out of there socket. Another great example would be rugby where a powerful tackle has commenced it could pop out the shoulder or again the knee. To treat this injury it is first X-rayed to make sure you haven't broken any bones. It's fairly common for someone who has dislocation that it will possibly also break the bone and the tendons and tissues. An ultrasound scan will then be needed to reveal if the rotator cuff tendons have torn. The affected ligament after will be supported in a sling, the bone will then gently be placed back into the socket using a procedure known as reduction, but before this you well possibly be given medication to sedate you, which ensures you are relaxed and as pain-free as possible.


Concussion- Temporary unconsciousness caused by a blow to the head. A primary example of this is in boxing when the fighter has bn hit in the temple and caused him to be knocked out and caused him to become unconscious. The symptons of this is having a very painful headache, dizziness, nausea, loss of balance, confusion, disturbance with vision, sometimes difficulty wih memories. To treat this injury you must first Apply ice to the head injury to help reduce swelling. Do not apply ice directly to your scalp as this could damage the skin. Instead, wrap the ice in a washcloth or towel. Alternatively, a bag of frozen vegetables such as peas could be used. Apply the ice every two to four hours and leave in place for 20-30 minutes. Have plenty of rest and avoid strssful situations, avoid drinking alcohol and taking recreational drugs, only return to work, college, school when you fel you have completely recovered.

ILLNESSES SIGNS/SYMPTONS/TREATMENTS

DIFFERENT TYPES OF ILLNESSES

Astham

. Hypoglycaemia


Asthma- asthma is a common long term condition which can involve, coughness, wheezing and difficulty breathing and having a tigh chest. the symptons of this illness is

  • feeling breathless (you may gasp for breath), having a tight chest, like a band tightening around it, wheezing- which makes a whistling sound when you breathe coughing, particularly at night and early morning, attacks triggered by exercise, exposure to allergens and other triggers. The aim of treatment of asthma is to keep it under control and keep it that way. The most well known treatment for asthma is to have an inhaler which is filled with a medicine which helps open up your bronchi a little, however make sure you pay regular visits o your doctors to have a check up evry once in a while. This could be a serious issue in sport as it could lead to an athlete having difficulties taking part in physical activities or training or even in a game. It could also afffect their training as an individual with asthma woldnt be able to train as hard and good as an individual without asthma, they weould need to take into precatuion there types of training and their effort level of training.
  • Hypoglycaemia- Hypoglycaemia also known as 'diabetes' means an abnormally low level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. When your glucose level is too low, your body does not have enough energy to carry out its activities. This is described as a 'hypo'. The symptons of this illness is feeling hungry, sweating, dizziness, tiredness (fatigue), blurred vision, trembling or shakiness, anxiety or irritability, going pale, fast pulse or palpitations, tingling of the lips. Most people will experience some early warning symptoms, although some people with diabetes can experience sudden or severe hypoglycaemia. The immediate treatment for a hypo is to have some sugary food or drink to end the attack. the treatment for his is to have a glass of fruit juice (that contains sugar) or Lucozade,

    a few sugar lumps, a handful of sweets, three or more glucose tablets, a cup of milk,

    half a cup of non-diet soft drink. this would be an issue for an athlete as during training or exercise or a game, they need a cerain amount of energy rom food and they would have to stop what they are doing to retrieve that energy back to cary in in their activity. it could also affect thir traiing as they would need to take into consideration their food energy source and having that same eney source throughout the whole of their time during physical activity.