Organic Chemistry:

Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, & Nucleic Acids

Background Information

Organic v. Inorganic Compounds:

  • Organic is carbon-based, and molecules are quite large with many atoms, and typically associated with living things, always covalent bonding.
  • Inorganic is not carbon-based, and contains p+ and n- ions.


Importance of Carbon: can bond with up to 4 different atoms to form chains, rings, and branches; and it will always form covalent bonds and share electrons.

  • Carbon has the potential to create huge molecules.


Functional Group: a specific combination of bonded atoms that always react in the same way.


Isomers: organic molecules with identical molecular formulas, but a different arrangement of atoms.

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Formation Of Macromolecules

Types: Carbohydrates, Proteins, Lipids, and Nucleic Acids.


Monomer: Subunits of macromolecules.


Polymer: Chains of monomers that make up macromolecules (it is a macromolecule).


Dehydration: Joining monomers to form polymers (attaching monomers----->loses H2O; exits the reaction) Ex: C6H12O6 OR C12H22O11-------> went through dehydration


Hydrolysis: Breaking polymers apart into monomers (Hydrolysis- water; destroy or break apart); you break apart a polymer by adding H2O.

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Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates: Organic Molecule made of C, H, & O in a 1:2:1 ratio [Carbo (Carbon); Hydrate (Water or H2O); CH20]


Functions: Provides short term energy (also provides structure in some organisms)


Monomers: Monosaccharide


Two Types of Carbohydrates:

1.) Simple Sugars: immediate energy

2.) Starch: 12-24 hour energy


Monosaccharide: contain a single sugar molecule (Ex: Glucose, Ribose, Deoxyribose, or Fructose)


Disaccharide: 2 monosaccharides joined by a dehydration reaction


Polysaccharides: long chains of monosaccharides (polymers)


  • Starch: storage form of glucose in plants
  • Glycogen: storage form of glucose in the liver
  • Cellulose (plant’s cell walls) & Chitin (exoskeletons): make up cell walls


Foods Containing Simple Sugars: Candy, Fruit, Sugar, Ice Cream, Desserts


Foods Containing Starch: Pasta, Cereal, Bread, Corn, Potatoes (grain products)

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Proteins

Proteins: organic molecules that provide structure & function made of C, H, O,& N


Functions:

  • Support/Structure
  • Metabolism (Every Reaction in the Body)
  • Transport (Hemoglobin)
  • Defense (Antibodies)
  • Motion (Muscles)
  • Regulation (Homeostasis)


Monomer: Amino Acids


Parts of an Amino Acid:

  1. Amino Group=NH2
  2. Carboxyl (Acidic Group)=COOH
  3. R-Group (differentiates amino acids)


Peptide Bond: Joins two amino acids.


Polypeptide: A long chain of amino acids, connected by peptide bonds.


Levels of Protein Organization

  1. Primary Structure: Sequence of amino acids that form a polypeptide chain.
  2. Secondary Structure: H-bonds between amino acids cause a helix to form OR a pleated sheet.
  3. Tertiary Structure: Helix folds due to bonding of R-groups.
  4. Quaternary Structure: 2 or more polypeptides join.


Foods Containing Proteins: Meats, Poultry, Seafood, Soy, Dairy, Nuts

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Lipids

Lipids: organic molecule made of C, H, & O that is insoluble in water (there is also a much greater than a 2:1 ratio of H:O); they have lots of carbon and hydrogen, yet they have very little oxygen


Functions: long term energy storage, insulation, cell membranes


Monomers: Glycerol and Fatty Acids (Triglyceride: 3 fatty acids and glycerol, which is the backbone)


Two Types of Fatty Acids:

  1. Saturated Fatty Acids: have no double bonds between carbon atoms (unhealthy)
  • Solid at room temperature
  • Fats (lard/butter)
  • Harder for body to break down and are what clogs your arteries
  • "Saturated"- full of hydrogen atoms


2. Unsaturated Fatty Acids: have double bonds between carbon atoms (healthy)

  • Liquid at room temperature
  • Oils
  • Not full of hydrogen, because there are double bonds (C=C; double bond between carbon atoms)


Polymers:

  1. Phospholipids: fat that make up cell membranes (forms bilayer)
  2. Steroids: cholesterol, testosterone, estrogen
  3. Waxes


Foods Containing Lipids: Meats, Dairy, Butter

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Nucleic Acids

Nucleic Acids: DNA & RNA and atoms present are Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphorus.


Functions: code for the structure & function of cells (code for proteins)


Monomer: Nucleotide

  • contains sugar, phosphate group, & a nitrogen base


DNA: the genetic material (deoxyribonucleic acid)


RNA: the copy of DNA used to make proteins

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