Transgenic Organisms

What are they?

What is a Transgenic Organism?

A transgenic organism is any organism that has an altered gene from one or more organisms. Another more common name for transgenic organisms are GMO's or genetically modified organisms. This is possible through the process of Bacterial Transformation.

The "Knockout" Mouse

Here you can see an embryo that has a foreign DNA molecule being inserted into the actual egg before the organism is born. As a result when the baby mouse is born it will now carry that new foreign DNA in it. This is an example of a transgenic organism in animals. Scientist have taken mice and "knocked out" a certain gene and replaced it with another piece of DNA from another organism.

The Process of Bacterial Transformation

The first step in Bacterial Transformation is to isolate the gene that is desired to be altered. After you isolate that gene, you insert the foreign DNA gene into a bacterial plasmid, or a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can reproduce on its own. Then the recumbent DNA is inserted inserted into the bacteria to get the bacteria to take in the plasmid. Finally, selecting the successful transformed bacteria produces the product that is desired. This process gives us one modified organism.

Where are they?

There are many examples of Transgenic Organisms today. For example, in our grocery stores many of our fruits and vegetables are genetically modified for many reasons. One reason is to be resistant to pesticides. Other reasons are to make the foods grow faster, look more ripe, or grow bigger.

Genetic Engineering in Humans

For some people, they need genetic engineering, like those who are affected from fires or sometimes people are born without certain body parts. Examples of this are gene therapy, cloning, and stem cells. Gene therapy alters a person's genes to control and treat traits and genetic conditions. Cloning is the copying and making an identical copy of any organism. Lastly, stem cells are undifferentiated which means that they can become any cell type, but these cells are human embryos.

My opinion?

I stand against the use of GMO's and the process of gene therapy, cloning, and stem cells. I think that it's unnatural and I feel that these processes do more harm than good. It's been proven that GMO foods haven been linked to many health problems that include heart issues. Although using and growing GMO foods give us that mass food surplus, what's going into those foods are not always safe.

Sources


"Transgenic Organisms - Genetics Generation." Genetics Generation. Web. 09 May 2016.


Web. 09 May 2016.


Notes from class