Eisenhower

The Election of Eisenhower

When:

  • November 4, 1952
  • November 6, 1956


Candidates (both 1952 & 1956):

  • Republican: Dwight D. Eisenhower (winner)
  • Democrat: Adlai Stevenson


Election:

  • Won by a landslide both times
  • Had both the electoral & popular vote
  • Campaign directed towards women
  • 1952: 55.2% of the votes
  • 1956: 57.4 % of the votes

The Cold War

Cold War: a state of political hostility between countries through threats, propaganda, and other types of open warfare
  • Name given to the relationship between U.S. and USSR


Events:

  • Armistice was signed in Korea
  • French lost the Battle of Dien Bien Phu
  • USSR and PCR offered military & economic aid to North Vietnam
  • US offered military & economic aid to South Vietnam
  • USSR launched Sputnik
  • Castro came into power in Cuba
  • American U2 spy plane shot down by USSR

Joseph McCarthy

  • Senator from Wisconsin
  • Anticommunist crusader
  • War hero "Tailgunner Joe"
  • Accused Secretary of State Dean Acheson of employing 205 Communist party members
  • Made wild accusations after Republican victory in 1952
  • Majority of American people agreed with McCarthy's crusade
  • 1954 accused the U.S. Army
  • McCarthyism: dangerous forces of unfairness unfairness and fear that a democratic society unleash

Eisenhower & Desegregation in the South

  • Rose Parks, 1955, sat in a whites only section on a bus and refused to move
  • Started the Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • Eisenhower showed no signs of interest in racial issues
  • Not very inclined to promote integration
  • Advised against integrating armed forces in 1948
  • Disagreed with permanent Fair Employment Practices Commission
  • Refused to publicize the Court's conclusion of the Brown v. Board of Education case
  • 1957 sent troops of Little Rock Central High School to escort 9 black children to class (Little Rock Crisis)
  • 1957 Civil Rights Act was passed (first since Reconstruction)
  • Eisenhower said it represented "the mildest civil rights bill possible"
  • Set up permanent Civil Rights Commission to investigation violations of civil rights etc.

Eisenhower's Republicanism Policies

  • Philosophy of "dynamic conservatism"
  • Strove to balance federal budget and guard the Republic from "creeping socialism"
  • Had a small government philosophy
  • Operation Wetback 1954 took back as many as 1 million Mexicans back to Mexico (illegal immigration)
  • Improved the New Deal

Beginning of the Vietnam War

  • Did not support Geneva Accords signed by France and Vietnam
  • Accord made 17th parallel divide Vietnam into North and South
  • Eisenhower created Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO)
  • SEATO was suppose to stop anymore communist influence in Southeast Asia
  • 1957 Vietnam War began
  • New leader of Vietnam, Ngo Dinh Diem, claimed they were under attack from the communist

Space Race with the Soviets

  • October 4, 1957 USSR launched Sputnik 1
  • "Rocket fever" swept the nation
  • Eisenhower established the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
  • 1957 Vanguard missile, of the U.S., blew up a few feet off the ground on television
  • 1958 the U.S. launched into orbit a grapefruit-sized satellite