Elements of ART


Line is a visual path of action, either straight, broken, or curvilinear.
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Mark Tobey, Calligraphy in White, Oil on Canvas, 1957


Shape is a two-dimensional area or space defined by a line or changes in value and color.
Form describes a three-dimensional object.


Form describes a three-dimensional object that has physical bulk.


Color is the effect light waves have as they reflect in the eye.
Hue is the name of a color.


Value is the relative lightness and darkness of an object.
Light is the radiant energy which makes everything we see visible, revealing the form of an object.
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Texture to how something feels (actual texture), or looks like it might feel if touched (implied texture).


Space is the indefinable, great, general, receptacle of all things. It is the void.

1. linear perspective - lines coverge on vanishing point to imply depth
2. atmospheric perspective - foreground objects are more detailed, larger, have more contrast; background is grayed, smaller, and less detailed
3. aerial - above looking down
4. worms - below looking up
5. size or scale change (larger in front, smaller in back)
6. position in picture plane (high or low)
7. overlap
8. foreshortening
9. warm and cool colors have spatial qualities (warm advance, cool recede)