The Rebirth of Greek and Roman Culture...

How did the Crusades stimulate trade between Europe and Muslim Empire?

It increased a demand for Middle Eastern products...
Sparked production of goods for trade in the Middle East.

And most importantly, encouraged the use of credit and banking!

How did the Northern Italian cities benefit from their geographic location?

  1. Access to trade helped to link Europe with Middle Eastern markets.
  2. Trading Centers for the circulation of goods to Northern Europe.
  3. Initially independent city-states governed as republics.

How did Italian city-states achieve importance and politically?

By ignoring The Church's opinion on using Usury.

What were Machiavelli's ideas about Absolute Power?

Machiavelli said in his writings that rulers/leaders should be feared not loved, and that leaders should do good if possible but evil when necessary. The end justifies the means...

How did the arts and literature of the Renaissance differ from those of the Middle Ages?

During the Renaissance, the main focus was on humans---the individuals rather than the divine, whereas the Middle Ages focused on religion, The Church and Salvation.

How did the Italian Renaissance change as they were adopted in northern Europe?

It became more advanced and evolved...