States of Consciousness
Psychology's Understanding of the Conscious Mind
Regular bodily rhythms that occur on a 24-hour cycle, such as of wakefulness and body temperature
Body temperature actually rises as morning approaches, peaks during the day, and begins to drop at night
THE SLEEP CYCLE: 90 minute cycle composed of REM and NREM Sleep. There are four basic stages
Stage One: You lay down and begin to relax; sometimes leads to hypnagogic sensations such as a feeling of falling, or sudden jerking of a muscle. In this stage, you are awake but your brain is settling into Alpha Waves: alert, but relaxed brain activity.
Stage Two: Lasts about 20 minutes, during which sleep "spindles" would show up on a graph, indicating bursts of rapid brain activity
Stage Three: Delta Waves begin; person is much harder to wake. Example: Someone comments about a loud thunderstorm last night and you didn't hear anything.
Stage Four: Delta Waves deepen; activities such as sleepwalking and night terrors happen in this stage.
About an hour after you first fall asleep, you leave the NREM cycle and enter REM (Rapid Eye Movement). Your brain's motor cortex is highly active, but the Brainstem blocks messages to your PNS, leaving muscles essentially paralyzed. This serves the imperative of protecting you as you dream. The REM cycles get longer as the night progresses.
Sleep Research and Sleep Disorders
persistent problems in falling or staying asleep
uncontrollable sleep attacks
is as unpredictable as a seizure
3. Sleep Apnea
temporary cessation of breathing
Usually associated with obesity, can be handled with "sleep machines"
REM ReboundREM sleep increases following REM sleep deprivation
Negative effects of sleep deprivation:
Effects of Sleep Loss
weight gain: sleep deprivation causes a decrease in the hunger-suppressing hormone Leptin
depressed immune system
greater vulnerability to accidents
REM Cylce and Dreams
Why we Dream:
1. To satisfy wishes: Sigmund Freud's "Interpretation of Dreams"
2. To file away memories
3. To physically develop neurological pathways
Can hypnosis be used to force people to act against their will?
Answer: Study conducted by Martin Orne and Fredrick Evans suggest no. People under hypnosis are just as likely to obey an immoral command as people who are NOT hypnotized. Remember the Milgram Experiment?
Hypnosis CAN however, be therapeutic. Post-hypnotic suggestion has actually been shown to reduce physical pain such as headaches or other stress-related conditions.
Hypnosis has NOT been proven to have any effect at treating additions.
a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
2. Physical Dependence
physiological need for a drug
marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms
3. Psychological Dependence
a psychological need to use a drug
for example, to relieve negative emotions
diminishing effect with regular use
discomfort and distress that follow discontinued use
TYPES OF DRUGS:
drugs that reduce neural activity
slow body functions
alcohol, barbiturates, opiates
drugs that excite neural activity
speed up body functions
caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, cocaine
psychedelic (mind-manifesting) drugs that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input
More Detail on Drugs
drugs that depress the activity of the central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement
opium and its derivatives (morphine and heroin)
opiates depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
lysergic acid diethylamide
a powerful hallucinogenic drug
also known as acid