Teks Assignment

By: Grant Straus

TEKS 4A

How are bacteria produced?

Bacteria are produced through asexual reproduction, which means that they are created from another bacterium. The bacterium that already exists is there in order to protect something (in most cases). Bacteria, for example, can be protecting your body from harmful bacteria or unwanted viruses, and can make another one of themselves through asexual reproduction.


This occurrence only happens when the conditions are right, but if they have enough nutrients and it's in the right weather conditions (such as temperature, light, etc.), they multiply to even further better protect whatever it is they're protecting, in this case the human body.

What are the parts of a bacteria cell?

A bacteria cell contains;


• Cytoplasm to rest the organelles in.

• DNA to hold the information for the bacteria.

• A cell wall to keep and sustain its structure.

• A flagellum to allow it to move around.

• The plasma membrane is for transporting things in and out of the bacterium.

• Ribosomes for protein synthesis


A bacterium is also prokaryotic.


This is what the bacteria that is all over your body and almost all living things looks like up-close.

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TEks 11B

What is an endospore and how does it affect a cell?

An endospore is a non-reproductive structure produced by bacteria from the Firmicute phylum and is not an actual spore. It can survive without nutrients and are highly resistant to many conditions of weapon and 'torture' or destruction techniques. It is a simple form of a bacterium that, when there is a lack of nutrients, bacteria turns itself into. The bacterium splits its cell wall and one side then encompasses the other, and can exist for years, centuries at a time. Its DNA is that of its bacterium former counterpart. It also contains that same bacterium's ribosomes.

What is the structure of an Endospore?

The structure of an Endospore is quite different to any cell previously mentioned, and while containing similar organelles like a cell wall and a membrane, looks far different from your typical cell.
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How are viruses cured?

In short, viruses simply just cannot be cured. They live inside the body's cells and protect itself there, like Bin Laden hid himself away in a specified area and building. The only way that a virus can be eliminated is by having your immune system take control of it and take it out and away, destroying the virus without harming yourself. A great way of preventing viruses is by taking vaccines, which inject a tiny amount of the virus into your bloodstream, and essentially trains your body how to fight it off so that is ready to when the virus comes, so the human doesn't even notice that they almost caught the virus. This is why, as humans, we get vaccines, to prevent virus infections on ourselves.

TEKS 4B

How are antibiotics made to harm bacteria?

Even though bacteria and human cells are very similar, antibiotics are created to kill all the parts of bacteria that aren't included in human cells. Human cells do not have cell walls, while almost all bacterium does, and antibiotics can make it so that bacteria cells cannot form a cell wall for themselves , and antibiotics can also target the membrane of bacterium and destroy it, while leaving the human cells are remained unharmed about of danger from the antibiotics.


There are three different types of antibiotic 'families' that can annihilate bacteria and those include Beta-Lactam, Macrolides, and Quinolones. All three of these have different ways of taking out the bacteria, and those ways can be by the ways of blocking cell walls (as mentioned previously), destroying the ribosomes that produce the proteins for the cell, and corrupting the DNA permanently.

Bacteria's bad effects on your body

  • Bacteria can kill the human body through food.
  • Very few people get seriously ill through food bacteria, however.
  • E. coli can be found in your food of animals you eat, which can interfere with the E. coli already living inside of your intestines, and cause issues there.
  • E. coli can even lead to diarrhea, severe illness, salmonella, placing you into the hospital, and as mentioned above, death.
  • Pathogenic bacteria can cause disease in humans, animals, and even plants.
  • Food spoiling can also create harmful effects to your body.
  • A disease caused from canned food poisons is Clostridium botulinum and can cause death.

What is N2 fixation?

N2 fixation is a process used which is needed to help plants perform many functions, such as photosynthesis, and is more properly known as Nitrogen Fixation. Nitrogen is needed for photosynthesis, proteins, amino acids, and more. Nitrogen Fixation ensures that nitrogen is given to the plants for the processes to occur. It was discovered by Beijerinck and started in 1901.

TEKS 4C

How does a virus enter their host?

A virus enters a host cell by connecting its DNA or RNA to its targets' DNA or RNA and gets all the information it needs to infect it by letting itself through the cell membrane, essentially. It attaches to the membrane at receptors and squeezes itself into the cells DNA or RNA, and, in some cases, viruses don't even need to enter the cell in order to harm it just as it would if it were in it.

Difference between a virus cell and a bacterium

A virus cell is a world different then a bacterium cell. For example, a virus cell is separated into two parts, the top being the main infector. A bacterium looks more like a human or animal cell, and is prokaryotic, while viruses are neither prokaryotes or eukaryotes due to their lack of characteristics in many aspects.


Below is a picture of each, where you can really see the difference.

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Bibliography

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"Endospore." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2015.


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"Good & Bad Effects of Bacteria." Healthy Eating. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2015.


HowStuffWorks. HowStuffWorks.com, n.d. Web. 17 Mar. 2015.


Nature.com. Nature Publishing Group, n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2015.


"Structure and Function of Bacterial Cells." Structure and Function of Bacterial Cells. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2015.


"3 Harmful Effects of Bacteria to Human Affairs – Discussed!" YourArticleLibrarycom The Next Generation Library. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Mar. 2015.


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"What Is An Antibiotic?" What Is An Antibiotic? N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Mar. 2015.