The Emancipation Proclamation was a presidential proclamation issued by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, as a war measure during the American Civil War. It proclaimed the freedom of slaves in the ten states that were still in rebellion, excluding areas controlled by the Union. The Emancipation Proclamation outraged white Southerners who envisioned a race war, angered some Northern Democrats, energized anti-slavery forces, and undermined forces in Europe that wanted to intervene to help the Confederacy.
The Battle of Gettysburg was fought July 1–3, 1863, in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, by Union and Confederate forces during the American Civil War. The battle involved the largest number of casualties of the entire war and is often described as the war's turning point. Union General George Meade's Army defeated attacks by Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee's Army, ending Lee's attempt to invade the North.
Dred Scott Case
The Dred Scott v. Sandford(1857), was a landmark decision by the U.S. Supreme Court in which the Court held that African Americans, whether enslaved or free, could not be American citizens and therefore had no standing to sue in federal court. Dred Scott, an enslaved African American man who had been taken by his owners to free states and territories, attempted to sue for his freedom. This case also stated that the federal government had no power to regulate slavery in the federal territories acquired after the creation of the United States.
The Battle of Appomattox Court House, was fought on April 9, 1865. It was the final engagement of Confederate States Army General Robert E. Lee, before he surrendered to the Union Army under General Ulysses S. Grant, and one of the last battles of the American Civil War. Union forces pursued and cut off the Confederate retreat at Appomattox Court House. Lee launched an attack to break through the Union force to his front, assuming the Union force consisted entirely of cavalry. When he realized that the cavalry was backed up by two corps of Union infantry, he had no choice but to surrender.