Facets of the Russian Revolution
Pranav Anbarasu and Ashwin Kumar
Czar Nicholas II of Russia
Ruler of Russia since 1894 succeeded his father's throne, Tsar Alexander III.
He mistrusted his ministers, yet was incapable of controlling the entire Russian Empire
Through his belief that Russia needed colonize territories, he began to encroach upon Manchuria, which provoked war with Japan
Born on May 6, 1868 and died on July 17, 1918.
Tsar Nicholas II was responsible for touching off the first part of the Russian Revolution, the February Revolution.
Soldiers, plebeians and normal citizens were disapproving on how Czar Nicholas II ran the government.
World War I caused many problems in Russia. For example, they had a scarcity of food and uneven land distribution amongst their inhabitants.
Nicholas II didn’t rectify these situations so citizens of multiple cities initiated riots and attacks towards the government and him.
“He abdicated the throne once he realized that he no longer had control of police or military forces to stop the rioting.” - (BBC)
- As to the second revolution, the October Revolution, he had no role because he was completely out of power, under arrest and in the custody of the Provisional Government.
Born on May 5, 1818 in Trier, Rhine province, Prussia (Germany)
Published “The Communist Manifesto” with Friedrich Engels
Was the author of the an important book during the socialist movement called “Das Kapital”
His writings of “The Communist Manifesto” with Engels and “Das Kapital” formed the belief known as Marxism
Marxism were the political and economic ideas of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that later was developed by their followers to create the basis ideas for communism
Disagreed with poverty and competitive companies
The Russian Revolution in 1917 began and was sparked because of Marxist beliefs and ideas
Vladimir Lenin, the revolution’s leader, made Russia a communist state and built his proletarian government based off Marxist thoughts and beliefs
Karl Marx’s contribution to the government turned him into an internationally famous figure more than 30 years after his death.
Died on March 14, 1883 at the age of 64 in London, England
Though he was going to create a utopian society, yet his principles were not fully taken into account how the dominant leaders ruled.
(1878-1953) was the dictator of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) from 1929 to 1953. Under Stalin, the Soviet Union was transformed from a peasant society into an industrial and military superpower
Born on December 21, 1878 in the Russian empire
Died at the age of 74 due to a stroke on March 5, 1953
Stalin first served in the central committee of Bolshevik in 1912, moved onto being a Secretary General in 1922 of the central committee of communist party.
By the late 1920s he came leader of the Soviet Union and created a 5 year plan to turn the Soviet Union into a power house.
“Under Stalin, the Soviet Union was transformed from a peasant society into an industrial and military superpower.”- (History)
Dictator of the USSR from 1929-1953
Totalitarian, ruled with power and control
Killed around 20 million people during his time.
Born on October 26, 1879 in Yanovka, Ukraine
Was a communist theorist and a leader in the Russian Revolution in 1917
Trotsky was later an official of the Communist Party of foreign affairs in the Soviet Union (1917–1924)
Joined the Bolshevik Party while he was still in jail, was also elected to membership of the Bolshevik Central Committee
As foreign commissar, Trotsky’s first action as commissar was to embed the Bolsheviks’ program of peace by calling for immediate armistice negotiations among the warring powers
Was later assassinated in Mexico City by ice pick wielding assassin ordered by Stalin
Died on August 21, 1940 in Coyoacán, Mexico
- Formed the red army, which united the Soviet Union during the Russian Revolution
A way of running a government
"Doctrine that replaced private property with communal wealth"
Marxist Philosophy greatly influenced Vladimir Lenin and the CPSU
Marxism: Karl Marx and Frederick Engels
The movement founded by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels which “fights for the self-emancipation of the working class, subjecting all forms of domination by the bourgeoisie, its institutions and its ideology, to theoretical and practical critique”
Helped middle class
Marxism was revolutionary; it opposed capitalism
Leninism: Vladimir Lenin
Lenin made two important revisions of the Marxist Doctrine
He believed that, although Russia had only just shaken off feudalism, and was barely capitalist, (although it was imperialist), this stage of the economy could be shortened, allowing for a socialist revolution
Marx claimed that peasantry was always conservative and would support the existing regime; the workers would be the motor of the socialist revolution. Lenin realized that because the working class in Russia is so small, peasants also had to be a part of the socialist revolution
Stalinism: Joseph Stalin
Stalinist economics called for the farms to be amalgamated into collective farms and the farmers to become agrarian workers.
It also called for all economic activity to be owned and controlled by the state through a centrally devised Five Year Plan worked out through the state planning agency - Gosplan
The state's industrial focus became heavy industry - mining, iron and steel production and shipbuilding
Cult of the Individual" or "Cult of the Personality"
This cult saw Stalin as a god, his every word was almost sacred. He was portrayed as the wisest, most benevolent and courageous person, Homo Sovieticus. His image was everywhere, like a modern day religious icon, and he was shown explaining complex engineering and agricultural and leading military leaders.
The idea that the class struggle intensifies after the revolution
- The party sought out enemies in its own ranks and in wider society
Soviet Secret Police
It’s purpose was to identify and root out those hostile to the Soviet regime on their own territory, to combat ‘enemies’ of the regime abroad, and foreign espionage
The primary apparat of political and cultural repression on Soviet territory
During the Revolution, it was the Cheka (Chrezvychaynaya Komissiya – Extraordinary Committee to Combat Counterrevolution and Sabotage)
- The organ primarily responsible for implementing the Red Terror in the first years of established Soviet power
Russian Orthodox Church in the Revolution
The government had nationalized all church property, including buildings
28 Russian Orthodox bishops and more than 1,200 priests were executed, and many others were persecuted
Most seminaries were closed, and publication of most religious material was prohibited.
The next quarter-century saw surges and declines in arrests, enforcement of laws against religious assembly and activities, and harassment of clergy
- Antireligious campaigns were directed at all faiths
Czar Nicholas II of Russia:
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Soviet Secret Police:
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Russian Orthodox Church in the Revolution:
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