Facets of the Russian Revolution

Pranav Anbarasu and Ashwin Kumar

Czar Nicholas II of Russia

  • Ruler of Russia since 1894 succeeded his father's throne, Tsar Alexander III.

  • He mistrusted his ministers, yet was incapable of controlling the entire Russian Empire

  • Through his belief that Russia needed colonize territories, he began to encroach upon Manchuria, which provoked war with Japan

  • Born on May 6, 1868 and died on July 17, 1918.

  • Tsar Nicholas II was responsible for touching off the first part of the Russian Revolution, the February Revolution.

  • Soldiers, plebeians and normal citizens were disapproving on how Czar Nicholas II ran the government.

  • World War I caused many problems in Russia. For example, they had a scarcity of food and uneven land distribution amongst their inhabitants.

  • Nicholas II didn’t rectify these situations so citizens of multiple cities initiated riots and attacks towards the government and him.

  • “He abdicated the throne once he realized that he no longer had control of police or military forces to stop the rioting.” - (BBC)

  • As to the second revolution, the October Revolution, he had no role because he was completely out of power, under arrest and in the custody of the Provisional Government.
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Karl Marx

  • Born on May 5, 1818 in Trier, Rhine province, Prussia (Germany)

  • Published “The Communist Manifesto” with Friedrich Engels

  • Was the author of the an important book during the socialist movement called “Das Kapital”

  • His writings of “The Communist Manifesto” with Engels and “Das Kapital” formed the belief known as Marxism

  • Marxism were the political and economic ideas of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that later was developed by their followers to create the basis ideas for communism

  • Disagreed with poverty and competitive companies

  • The Russian Revolution in 1917 began and was sparked because of Marxist beliefs and ideas

  • Vladimir Lenin, the revolution’s leader, made Russia a communist state and built his proletarian government based off Marxist thoughts and beliefs

  • Karl Marx’s contribution to the government turned him into an internationally famous figure more than 30 years after his death.

  • Died on March 14, 1883 at the age of 64 in London, England

  • Though he was going to create a utopian society, yet his principles were not fully taken into account how the dominant leaders ruled.

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Joseph Stalin

(1878-1953) was the dictator of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) from 1929 to 1953. Under Stalin, the Soviet Union was transformed from a peasant society into an industrial and military superpower

  • Born on December 21, 1878 in the Russian empire

  • Died at the age of 74 due to a stroke on March 5, 1953

  • Stalin first served in the central committee of Bolshevik in 1912, moved onto being a Secretary General in 1922 of the central committee of communist party.

  • By the late 1920s he came leader of the Soviet Union and created a 5 year plan to turn the Soviet Union into a power house.

  • “Under Stalin, the Soviet Union was transformed from a peasant society into an industrial and military superpower.”- (History)

  • Dictator of the USSR from 1929-1953

  • Totalitarian, ruled with power and control

  • Killed around 20 million people during his time.

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Leon Trotsky

  • Born on October 26, 1879 in Yanovka, Ukraine

  • Was a communist theorist and a leader in the Russian Revolution in 1917

  • Trotsky was later an official of the Communist Party of foreign affairs in the Soviet Union (1917–1924)

  • Joined the Bolshevik Party while he was still in jail, was also elected to membership of the Bolshevik Central Committee

  • As foreign commissar, Trotsky’s first action as commissar was to embed the Bolsheviks’ program of peace by calling for immediate armistice negotiations among the warring powers

  • Was later assassinated in Mexico City by ice pick wielding assassin ordered by Stalin

  • Died on August 21, 1940 in Coyoacán, Mexico

  • Formed the red army, which united the Soviet Union during the Russian Revolution
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Communism

  • A way of running a government

  • "Doctrine that replaced private property with communal wealth"

  • Marxist Philosophy greatly influenced Vladimir Lenin and the CPSU

  • Marxism: Karl Marx and Frederick Engels

    • The movement founded by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels which “fights for the self-emancipation of the working class, subjecting all forms of domination by the bourgeoisie, its institutions and its ideology, to theoretical and practical critique”

    • Helped middle class

    • Marxism was revolutionary; it opposed capitalism

  • Leninism: Vladimir Lenin

    • Lenin made two important revisions of the Marxist Doctrine

      • He believed that, although Russia had only just shaken off feudalism, and was barely capitalist, (although it was imperialist), this stage of the economy could be shortened, allowing for a socialist revolution

      • Marx claimed that peasantry was always conservative and would support the existing regime; the workers would be the motor of the socialist revolution. Lenin realized that because the working class in Russia is so small, peasants also had to be a part of the socialist revolution

  • Stalinism: Joseph Stalin

    • Stalinist economics called for the farms to be amalgamated into collective farms and the farmers to become agrarian workers.

    • It also called for all economic activity to be owned and controlled by the state through a centrally devised Five Year Plan worked out through the state planning agency - Gosplan

    • The state's industrial focus became heavy industry - mining, iron and steel production and shipbuilding

    • Cult of the Individual" or "Cult of the Personality"

    • This cult saw Stalin as a god, his every word was almost sacred. He was portrayed as the wisest, most benevolent and courageous person, Homo Sovieticus. His image was everywhere, like a modern day religious icon, and he was shown explaining complex engineering and agricultural and leading military leaders.

    • The idea that the class struggle intensifies after the revolution

    • The party sought out enemies in its own ranks and in wider society
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Soviet Secret Police

  • It’s purpose was to identify and root out those hostile to the Soviet regime on their own territory, to combat ‘enemies’ of the regime abroad, and foreign espionage

  • The primary apparat of political and cultural repression on Soviet territory

  • During the Revolution, it was the Cheka (Chrezvychaynaya Komissiya – Extraordinary Committee to Combat Counterrevolution and Sabotage)

  • The organ primarily responsible for implementing the Red Terror in the first years of established Soviet power
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Russian Orthodox Church in the Revolution

  • The government had nationalized all church property, including buildings

  • 28 Russian Orthodox bishops and more than 1,200 priests were executed, and many others were persecuted

  • Most seminaries were closed, and publication of most religious material was prohibited.

  • The next quarter-century saw surges and declines in arrests, enforcement of laws against religious assembly and activities, and harassment of clergy

  • Antireligious campaigns were directed at all faiths
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Works Cited

Czar Nicholas II of Russia:


MLA Citation: "Czar Nicholas II." BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2015.


MLA Citation: Nicolas II of Russia. Digital image. Winter Palace. Earnest Lipgart, n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2015.


MLA Citation: "Russian Rulers History." Russian Rulers History. N.p., n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2015.


Karl Marx:


MLA Citation: "Karl Marx." Britannica School. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2015.


MLA Citation: Karl Marx. Digital image. Karl Marx. Unknown, n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2015.


MLA Citation: "Karl Marx." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2015.


MLA Citation: "English Online." Karl Marx. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2015.


Joseph Stalin:


MLA Citation: Joseph Stalin. Digital image. Joseph Stalin. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2015.


MLA Citation: "Joseph Stalin." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2015.


Leon Trotsky:


MLA Citation: "Leon Trotsky." BBC News. BBC, 2014. Web. 17 Oct. 2015.


MLA Citation: Leon Trotsky. Digital image. Leon Trotsky. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2015.


MLA Citation: Biography.com Editors. "Leon Trotsky Biography." The Biography.com Website. A&E Networks Television, n.d. Web. 17 Oct. 2015.

Communism:


MLA Citation: "Communism and Computer Ethics." Communism: History and Background. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2015.


MLA Citation:"HISTORY OF COMMUNISM." HISTORY OF COMMUNISM. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2015.


MLA CItation: Mcdonough, Terrence. "Lenin, Imperialism, and the Stages of Capitalist Development." Science & Society 59.3, Lenin: Evaluation, Critique, Renewal (1995): 339-67. JSTOR. Web. 19 Oct. 2015.


MLA Citation: SparkNotes. SparkNotes, n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2015.


MLA Citation: "Russian Revolution of 1917, Communism, Cold War." Russian Revolution of 1917, Communism, Cold War. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2015.


MLA Citation: "Marxism." , by Andy Blunden. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2015.


Soviet Secret Police:


MLA Citation: "Secret Police." Infoplease. Infoplease, n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2015.


MLA Citation: "HA-SOVIET SECRET POLICE." HA-SOVIET SECRET POLICE. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2015.


MLA Citation: "Communist Secret Police." Spartacus Educational. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2015.


Russian Orthodox Church in the Revolution:


MLA Citation: "Russian Orthodox Church." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 18 Oct. 2015.


MLA Citation: "Russia - The Russian Orthodox Church." Russia - The Russian Orthodox Church. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2015.


Images

MLA Citation: "Tsar Nicholas II of Russia." Spartacus Educational. Spartacus Educational, n.d. Web.


MLA Citation:"Karl Marx | Biography - German Philosopher." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2015.


MLA Citation:"Joseph Stalin." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2015.


MLA Citation:"Leon-trotsky." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2015.


MLA Citation:"[Russian Joke] What's Meant by an Exchange Opinions in the Communist Party of the Soviet Union?" YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2015.


MLA Citation:Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2015.


MLA Citation:N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2015.