PMS is a group of symptoms that occur in women, typically between ovulation and a period
- Tenderness or generalized lumpiness of the breasts.
- A feeling of bloating caused by the retention of fluid.
- Mood changes, including feeling tense, irritability, depression, and anxiety.
- Difficulty concentrating and making everyday decisions.
- Headaches, including migraine.
- Backache and muscle stiffness.
- Disruption of normal sleep patterns.
- Unusual food cravings.
As many as 1 in 3 women experiences symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) as her period approaches. In up to 1 in 20 women, these symptoms may be severe enough to disrupt activities.
Certain nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen, can help to relieve headaches, backache, and muscle stiffness. Diuretic drugsmay help to relieve fluid retention, thereby relieving bloating and breast tenderness. Your doctor may also suggest hormone treatment, such as treatment with the combined oral contraceptive pill. If you have persistent psychological symptoms, such as depression, antidepressant drugs may be helpful. No treatment is consistently successful, but the symptoms can usually be relieved.
Not seeing or feeling a testicle where you would expect it to be in the scrotum is the main sign of an undescended testicle.
Of 6935 neonates assessed at birth, 255 (3.7%) were found to be cryptorchid at birth. The rates were significantly elevated for low birth weight, preterm, small-for-gestational age, and twin neonates. The overall rate had declined to 1.0% by the 3-month assessment and 1.1% at the 1-year assessment. Although the rates at the 1-year assessment tended to be higher for low birth weight and preterm infants, no significant group differences were observed.
- Hormone Treatment
- Saline Testicular Prostheses