Hodgkin Lymphoma

Brandon Lindley Period 3

What is Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL)

Hodgkin Lymphoma ( HL) is a cancer of white blood cells called lymphocytes.


  • Lymphocytes protect the body from disease and infection.

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What Happens in the Cells?

In Hl, cancerous lymphocytes generally show up in the lymph nodes. Lymph nodes are small organs around the body. As HL gets worse, the cancerous cells spread to other lymph nodes in the body.


Symptoms

  • Most Common: Swelling in the lymph nodes around the neck, armpits, or groin.
  • Night Sweats.
  • Itchy Skin.
  • Weight Loss.
  • Fevers.
  • Shortness of breath / Cough from enlarged lymph nodes in the chest.

Health/Risk Factors that Cause HL

  • Epstein-Barr Virus infection / Mononucleosis- Risk increased
  • Age ( 15-40) ( after age 50).
  • Gender - Slightly more often in males than females.
  • Geography- Most common in the U.S, Canada, and northern Europe.
  • Heredity- Inheriting HL is uncommon. The risk is very high for an identical twin of a person.
  • HIV infection- Risk is increased with people infected with HIV.

Can HL be prevented?

For all scientists know, HL can't be prevented. The best way to decrease the odds of someone contracting it is to be healthy and avoid HIV and Mononucleosis.

How is HL Diagnosed?

Hl can be detected by the following tests:


  • Physical Exam and History: A general exam of the body.
  • Complete Blood Count (CBC): Samples of blood are drawn and checked.
  • Blood Chemistry Studies: Blood samples that are checked to measure the amount of certain substances released in the body by organs and tissues.
  • Lymph Node Biopsy: The removal of all or part of a lymph node.
  • Immunophenotyping: Test to identify cells, based on the markers on their surface.


To see if the cancer cells have spread to other parts of the body of lymph system, 3 scans/tests are done:

  • CAT scan (CT scan): Complex pictures are taken in areas within the body.
  • PET-CT scan: Procedure that combines the pictures of 2 scans.
  • Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy: Removal of bone marrow, blood, and a small piece of bone are checked on.

How is HL treated?

Treatment options depends on many factors:

  • The stage/extent of HL.
  • If the disease is bulky/large.
  • Whether HL is causing certain symptoms.
  • Results of blood and other lab tests.
  • A person's age or general health.


Treatments:

  • Radiation Therapy.
  • Chemotherapy.
  • Stem Cell Transplant.